Article

MEK-ERK pathway modulation ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis associated with epidermal growth factor receptor activation

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.11). 03/2012; 46(3):380-8. DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2011-0237OC
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pulmonary fibrosis remains a significant public health burden with no proven therapies. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade is a major pathway controlling cellular processes associated with fibrogenesis, including growth, proliferation, and survival. Activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway is detected in the lungs of human fibrosis samples; however, the effect of modulating the pathway in vivo is unknown. Overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-α in the lung epithelium of transgenic mice causes a progressive pulmonary fibrosis associated with increased MEK/ERK activation localized primarily in mesenchymal cells. To determine the role of the MEK pathway in the induction of TGF-α-induced lung fibrosis, TGF-α was overexpressed for 4 weeks while mice were simultaneously treated with the specific MEK inhibitor, ARRY-142886 (ARRY). Treatment with ARRY prevented increases in lung cell proliferation and total lung collagen, attenuated production of extracellular matrix genes, and protected mice from changes in lung function. ARRY administered as a rescue treatment after fibrosis was already established inhibited fibrosis progression, as assessed by lung histology, changes in body weights, extracellular matrix gene expression, and lung mechanics. These findings demonstrate that MEK inhibition prevents progression of established fibrosis in the TGF-α model, and provides proof of concept of targeting the MEK pathway in fibrotic lung disease.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Cynthia Davidson, Jul 29, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
133 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe inflammatory process of the lung. The only proven life-saving support is mechanical ventilation (MV) using low tidal volumes (LVT) plus moderate to high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, it is currently unknown how they exert the protective effects. To identify the molecular mechanisms modulated by protective MV, this study reports transcriptomic analyses based on microarray and microRNA sequencing in lung tissues from a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis-induced ALI. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. At 24 hours post-CLP, septic animals were randomized to three ventilatory strategies: spontaneous breathing, LVT (6 ml/kg) plus 10 cmH2O PEEP and high tidal volume (HVT, 20 ml/kg) plus 2 cmH2O PEEP. Healthy, non-septic, non-ventilated animals served as controls. After 4 hours of ventilation, lung samples were obtained for histological examination and gene expression analysis using microarray and microRNA sequencing. Validations were assessed using parallel analyses on existing publicly available genome-wide association study findings and transcriptomic human data. The catalogue of deregulated processes differed among experimental groups. The 'response to microorganisms' was the most prominent biological process in septic, non-ventilated and in HVT animals. Unexpectedly, the 'neuron projection morphogenesis' process was one of the most significantly deregulated in LVT. Further support for the key role of the latter process was obtained by microRNA studies, as four species targeting many of its genes (Mir-27a, Mir-103, Mir-17-5p and Mir-130a) were found deregulated. Additional analyses revealed 'VEGF signaling' as a central underlying response mechanism to all the septic groups (spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated). Based on this data, we conclude that a co-deregulation of 'VEGF signaling' along with 'neuron projection morphogenesis', which have been never anticipated in ALI pathogenesis, promotes lung-protective effects of LVT with high levels of PEEP.
    PLoS ONE 10(7):e0132296. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132296 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is no therapy for chronic fibroproliferative diseases, in spite of the fact that current health statistics suggest that these (which include cardiovascular disease, pulmonary fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy, liver cirrhosis and systemic sclerosis) have been estimated to cause approximately 45% of the deaths in the developed world. Recently, many studies have shown that mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated in response to fibrogenic agents and contribute to the formation and function of the myofibroblast, the critical cell type responsible for excessive scarring. A recent report by Madala and colleagues (Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 2011) has provided a proof-of-concept study showing that the specific MEK inhibitor ARRY-142886 (ARRY) can both suppress the progression of fibrosis and reverse an animal model of lung fibrosis. Thus MEK inhibition could be a valuable method to treat lung fibrosis.
    Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 12/2011; 6(1):59-60. DOI:10.1007/s12079-011-0156-9
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Resistin-like molecule alpha or found in inflammatory zone protein (Fizz1) is increased in pulmonary epithelial cells and also in limited amounts by other lung cells during various lung injuries and fibrosis. However, the direct role of Fizz1 produced in the pulmonary epithelium has not been determined. Methods Fizz1 Transgenic mice (CCSP/Fizz1) were generated that overexpress Fizz1 in the lung epithelium under the control of a doxycycline (Dox) inducible lung epithelial cell specific promoter Scgb1a1 (Clara cell secretory protein, CCSP). Histology and FACS analysis of lung cells were used to identify the direct effects of Fizz1 in the transgenic mice (Dox treated) when compared with control (CCSP/-) mice. Intratracheal bleomycin sulfate or silica in saline and saline alone were used to study the role of Fizz1 during bleomycin- and silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in CCSP/Fizz1 and CCSP/- mice. Weight change, pulmonary inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed 10 days post bleomycin or 28 days post silica challenge. Results When CCSP/Fizz1 mice were fed Dox food, elevated Fizz1 protein was detected in lung homogenates by western blot. Lungs of mice in which Fizz1 was induced in the epithelium contained increased lung cells staining for CD11c and F4/80 by FACS analysis consistent with increased dendritic cells however, no changes were observed in the percentage of interstitial macrophages compared to CCSP/- controls. No significant changes were found in the lung histology of CCSP/Fizz1 mice after up to 8 weeks of overexpression compared to CCSP/- controls. Overexpression of Fizz1 prior to challenge or following challenge with bleomycin or silica did not significantly alter airway inflammation or fibrosis compared to control mice. Conclusions The current study demonstrates that epithelial cell derived Fizz1 is sufficient to increase the bone-marrow derived dendritic cells in the lungs, but it is not sufficient to cause lung fibrosis or alter chemical or particle-induced fibrosis.
    Respiratory research 06/2012; 13(1):51. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-13-51 · 3.38 Impact Factor
Show more