CDH1-related hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome: Clinical variations and implications for counseling

Family Cancer Clinic, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.09). 07/2012; 131(2):367-76. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.26398
Source: PubMed


CDH1 mutation carriers have a strongly increased risk of developing gastric cancer (GC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). Clinical data of GC cases and surgical and histological data of prophylactic gastrectomies and mastectomies of all 10 Dutch CDH1 mutation families were collected. In vitro functional assays were performed to analyze the nature of the newly found missense mutation c.1748T>G (p.Leu583Arg). Ten different CDH1 mutations were found. Functional assays gave strong arguments for the pathogenic nature of the p.Leu583Arg mutation. The pedigrees comprised 36 GC cases (mean age 40 years, range 20-72 years) and one LBC case. Twenty-nine/37 carriers alive, aged 18-61 years, underwent prophylactic gastrectomy. Invasive GC-foci and premalignant abnormalities were detected in 2 and 25 patients, respectively. In four patients GC/signetring cell (SRC) foci were diagnosed at preoperative gastroscopy. Long-standing presence of SRCs without progression to invasive carcinoma was shown in two others. Multifocal LBC/LCIS was found in the two prophylactic mastectomy specimens. Clefts of lip and/or palate (CL/P) were reported in seven individuals from three families. The age at onset and aggressiveness of GC is highly variable, which has to be included in counseling on planning prophylactic gastrectomies. The incidence of LBC is expected to increase and prophylactic mastectomy needs to be considered. The relationship between CL/P and CDH1 needs further study to inform future parents from hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) families adequately.

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Available from: Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Oct 13, 2014
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    • "Prophylactic total gastrectomy is the recommended form of management for individuals over 20 years of age carrying a CDH1 mutation, because of their 80 % lifetime risk of developing gastric cancer and the limited value of surveillance modalities [8, 9]. The increased occurrence of cleft lip/cleft palate in HDGC patients with a CDH1 mutation was suggested by Frebourg et al. [12] and supported by Kluijt et al. [13], who have described 4/58 (7 %) CDH1 germline mutation carriers with orofacial cleft in the Dutch study for familial cancer. In France, approximately 6 % of registered CDH1 germline mutation carriers have an orofacial cleft [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The CDH1 gene plays an important role during carcinogenesis and craniofacial morphogenesis. Germline mutations in this gene have been described in families presenting syndromic diffuse gastric cancer and orofacial clefts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nucleotide variants of CDH1 and the risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CDH1 gene (rs16260, rs9929218, rs7186053, rs4783573, rs16958383, and rs1801552) were genotyped using the TaqMan SNP genotyping assays in 250 patients with NSCL/P and 540 controls from the Polish population. Comparison between patient and control groups showed that the CDH1 rs1801552 variant, under the assumption of recessive model, was associated with a two-fold decrease in the risk of NSCL/P (ORTT vs CT + CC = 0.481, 95 % CI 0.281-0.824, p = 0.007). This association remained statistically significant even after the multiple testing correction. No significant associations with NSCL/P risk were found for the other five tested SNPs. We found a strong association between the cancer predisposing gene CDH1 and the risk of NSCL/P in the Polish population. This result, together with previous observations of co-occurrence of orofacial clefts and a variety of cancer types, suggests the need for replication studies testing rs1801552 in NSCL/P cohorts with a known cancer history.
    Familial Cancer 05/2014; 13(3). DOI:10.1007/s10689-014-9727-2 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    • "In the MSI pathway of gastric carcinogenesis, mutations of hMLH1 were reported in approximately 0%–7.3% of MSI-H GC [6] [7]. However, hMLH1 silencing due to promoter methylation has been reported to be associated with the development of more than 50% of MSI-H GC [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mismatch repair (MMR) and germline E-cadherin (CDH1) mutations are two of the major pathways of carcinogenesis in familial gastric cancer (GC). A total of 260 sporadic and 66 familial GC patients were enrolled and molecular and survival differences were compared. Familial GC patients had earlier onset and were diagnosed at an earlier stage and had both a better 5-year overall survival rate and 3-year disease-free survival rate compared with sporadic GC patients. Only in diffuse type GC, the MSI-H phenotype and abnormal MMR protein expression were significantly higher in familial GC than in sporadic GC. In MSI-H GC, MLH1 promoter methylation was slightly higher in sporadic GC than familial GC (50% versus 23.1%), while the frequency of MMR gene mutation was slightly higher in familial GC than in sporadic GC (15.4% versus 3.1%). All of the patients with MMR gene mutation had diffuse type GC. Among familial GC patients with CDH1 mutation, most patients (72.3%) had diffuse type GC. In summary, for familial GC patients, we recommend screening of MSI status and CDH1 mutation especially for diffuse type GC. Because of the low incidence, mutation analysis of MMR gene might be considered in MSI-H familial GC with diffuse type only.
    03/2013; 2013:396272. DOI:10.1155/2013/396272
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    ABSTRACT: E-cadherin is critical for the maintenance of tissue architecture due to its role in cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin mutations are the genetic cause of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) and missense mutations represent a clinical burden, due to the uncertainty of their pathogenic role. In vitro and in vivo, most mutations lead to loss-of-function, although the causal factor is unknown for the majority. We hypothesized that destabilization could account for the pathogenicity of E-cadherin missense mutations in HDGC, and tested our hypothesis using in silico and in vitro tools. FoldX algorithm was used to calculate the impact of each mutation in E-cadherin native-state stability, and the analysis was complemented with evolutionary conservation, by SIFT. Interestingly, HDGC patients harbouring germline E-cadherin destabilizing mutants present a younger age at diagnosis or death, suggesting that the loss of native-state stability of E-cadherin accounts for the disease phenotype. To elucidate the biological relevance of E-cadherin destabilization in HDGC, we investigated a group of newly identified HDGC-associated mutations (E185V, S232C and L583R), of which L583R is predicted to be destabilizing. We show that this mutation is not functional in vitro, exhibits shorter half-life and is unable to mature, due to premature proteasome-dependent degradation, a phenotype reverted by stabilization with the artificial mutation L583I (structurally tolerated). Herein we report E-cadherin structural models suitable to predict the impact of the majority of cancer-associated missense mutations and we show that E-cadherin destabilization leads to loss-of-function in vitro and increased pathogenicity in vivo.
    PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33783. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033783 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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