Characterization and comparative genomic analysis of a novel bacteriophage, SFP10, simultaneously inhibiting both Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7.
ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are major food-borne pathogens causing serious illness. Phage SFP10, which revealed effective infection of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7, was isolated and characterized. SFP10 contains a 158-kb double-stranded DNA genome belonging to the Vi01 phage-like family Myoviridae. In vitro adsorption assays showed that the adsorption constant rates to both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were 2.50 × 10⁻⁸ ml/min and 1.91 × 10⁻⁸ ml/min, respectively. One-step growth analysis revealed that SFP10 has a shorter latent period (25 min) and a larger burst size (>200 PFU) than ordinary Myoviridae phages, suggesting effective host infection and lytic activity. However, differential development of resistance to SFP10 in S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 was observed; bacteriophage-insensitive mutant (BIM) frequencies of 1.19 × 10⁻² CFU/ml for S. Typhimurium and 4.58 × 10⁻⁵ CFU/ml for E. coli O157:H7 were found, indicating that SFP10 should be active and stable for control of E. coli O157:H7 with minimal emergence of SFP10-resistant pathogens but may not be for S. Typhimurium. Specific mutation of rfaL in S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 revealed the O antigen as an SFP10 receptor for both bacteria. Genome sequence analysis of SFP10 and its comparative analysis with homologous Salmonella Vi01 and Shigella phiSboM-AG3 phages revealed that their tail fiber and tail spike genes share low sequence identity, implying that the genes are major host specificity determinants. This is the first report identifying specific infection and inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by a single bacteriophage.
Article: Characterization of nonmotile variants of Escherichia coli O157 and other serotypes by using an antiflagellin monoclonal antibody.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An antiflagellin monoclonal antibody (15D8) was used to detect the presence of flagella in nonmotile variants of several pathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes. Of the 48 isolates examined, 15 reacted with monoclonal antibody 15D8 and were culturally confirmed to be motile. Of the 38 clinical strains designated O157:NM or O157:H-, 7 were antibody reactive and motile and agglutinated with anti-H7 sera.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/1996; 34(11):2856-9. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides are a component of the peptide-based host defense of neutrophils and epithelia, with a widespread distribution in mammals. We recently reported the cDNA sequences of three putative horse myeloid cathelicidins, named eCATH-1, -2, and -3. A Western analysis was performed to investigate their presence in neutrophils and processing to mature peptides. eCATH-2 and eCATH-3, but not eCATH-1, were found to be present in uncleaved forms in horse neutrophils. The corresponding mature peptides were detected in inflammatory sites, suggesting that processing of the propeptides takes place upon neutrophil activation. A functional characterization was then performed with synthetic eCATH peptides. Circular dichroism measurements indicated an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation of these peptides in an anisotropic environment, and in vitro assays revealed a potent activity and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity for eCATH-1 and a somewhat more restricted spectrum of activity for eCATH-2. Conversely, a strong dependence on salt concentration was observed when the activity of eCATH-3 was tested. This peptide efficiently killed bacteria and some fungal species, i.e., Cryptococcus neoformans and Rhodotorula rubra, in low-ionic-strength media, but the activity was inhibited in the presence of physiological salt medium. This behavior could be modified by modulating the amphipathicity of the molecule. In fact, the synthetic analogue LLK-eCATH-3, with a slightly modified sequence that increases the hydrophobic moment of the peptide, displayed a potent activity in physiological salt medium against the strains resistant to eCATH-3 under these conditions.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2001; 45(3):715-22. · 4.84 Impact Factor
Article: Structure of the receptor-binding protein of bacteriophage det7: a podoviral tail spike in a myovirus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new Salmonella enterica phage, Det7, was isolated from sewage and shown by electron microscopy to belong to the Myoviridae morphogroup of bacteriophages. Det7 contains a 75-kDa protein with 50% overall sequence identity to the tail spike endorhamnosidase of podovirus P22. Adsorption of myoviruses to their bacterial hosts is normally mediated by long and short tail fibers attached to a contractile tail, whereas podoviruses do not contain fibers but attach to host cells through stubby tail spikes attached to a very short, noncontractile tail. The amino-terminal 150 residues of the Det7 protein lack homology to the P22 tail spike and are probably responsible for binding to the base plate of the myoviral tail. Det7 tail spike lacking this putative particle-binding domain was purified from Escherichia coli, and well-diffracting crystals of the protein were obtained. The structure, determined by molecular replacement and refined at a 1.6-A resolution, is very similar to that of bacteriophage P22 tail spike. Fluorescence titrations with an octasaccharide suggest Det7 tail spike to bind its receptor lipopolysaccharide somewhat less tightly than the P22 tail spike. The Det7 tail spike is even more resistant to thermal unfolding than the already exceptionally stable homologue from P22. Folding and assembly of both trimeric proteins are equally temperature sensitive and equally slow. Despite the close structural, biochemical, and sequence similarities between both proteins, the Det7 tail spike lacks both carboxy-terminal cysteines previously proposed to form a transient disulfide during P22 tail spike assembly. Our data suggest receptor-binding module exchange between podoviruses and myoviruses in the course of bacteriophage evolution.Journal of Virology 04/2008; 82(5):2265-73. · 5.40 Impact Factor