Article

Relapse and recurrence prevention in depression: Current research and future prospects

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Clinical psychology review (Impact Factor: 7.18). 12/2011; 31(8):1349-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.09.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is a growing body of literature which indicates that acute phases of psychotherapy are often ineffective in preventing relapse and recurrence in major depression. As a result, there is a need to develop and evaluate therapeutic approaches which aim to reduce the risk of relapse. This article provides a review of the empirical studies which have tested the prophylactic effects of therapy (cognitive-behavioral, mindfulness-based, and interpersonal psychotherapy) targeting relapse and recurrence in major depression. For definitional clarity, relapse is defined here as a return to full depressive symptomatology before an individual has reached a full recovery, whereas recurrence in defined as the onset of a new depressive episode after a full recovery has been achieved. Psychotherapeutic efforts to prevent relapse and recurrence in depression have been effective to varying degrees, and a number of variables appear to moderate the success of these approaches. A consistent finding has been that preventive cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based therapies are most effective for patients with three or more previous depressive episodes, and alternative explanations for this finding are discussed. It is noted, however, that a number of methodological limitations exist within this field of research, and so a set of hypotheses that may guide future studies in this area is provided.

Full-text

Available from: Shadi Beshai, Nov 29, 2014
2 Followers
 · 
142 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Internet-based cognitive therapy with monitoring via text messages (mobile CT), in addition to treatment as usual (TAU), might offer a cost-effective way to treat recurrent depression. Method: Remitted patients with at least 2 previous episodes of depression were randomized to mobile CT in addition to TAU (n = 126) or TAU only (n = 113). A linear mixed model was used to examine the effect of the treatment condition on a 3-month course of depressive symptoms after remission. Both an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 239) and a completer analysis (n = 193) were used. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR30) at baseline and 1.5 and 3 months after randomization. Results: Residual depressive symptoms showed a small but statistically significant decrease in the intention-to-treat group over 3 months in the mobile CT group relative to the TAU group (difference: -1.60 points on the IDS-SR30 per month, 95% CI = -2.64 to -0.56, p = 0.003). The effect of the treatment condition on the depressive symptomatology at the 3-month follow-up was small to moderate (Cohen's d = 0.44). All analyses among completers (≥5 modules) showed more pronounced treatment effects. Adjustment for unequally distributed variables did not markedly affect the results. Conclusions: Residual depressive symptoms after remission showed a more favorable course over 3 months in the mobile CT group compared to the TAU group. These results are a first indication that mobile CT in addition to TAU is effective in treating recurrently depressed patients in remission. However, demonstration of its long-term effectiveness and replication remains necessary. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 02/2015; 84(2):90-99. DOI:10.1159/000369469 · 9.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Studies suggest that poor physical health might be associated with increased depression and anxiety recurrence. The objectives of this study were to determine whether specific chronic diseases and pain characteristics are associated with depression and anxiety recurrence and to examine whether such associations are mediated by subthreshold depressive or anxiety symptoms. Methods 1122 individuals with remitted depressive or anxiety disorder (Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety) were followed up for a period of four years. The impact of specific chronic diseases and pain characteristics on recurrence was assessed using Cox regression and mediation analyses. Results Chronic diseases were not associated with recurrence. Neck (HR 1.45, p < .01), chest (HR 1.65, p < .01), abdominal (HR 1.52, p < .01) pain, an increase in the number of pain locations (HR 1.10, p < .01) and pain severity (HR 1.18, p = .01) were associated with an increased risk of depression recurrence but not anxiety. Subthreshold depressive symptoms mediated the associations between pain and depression recurrence. Conclusions Pain, not chronic disease, increases the likelihood of depression recurrence, largely through its association with aggravated subthreshold depressive symptoms. These findings support the idea of the existence of a mutually reinforcing mechanism between pain and depression and are indicative of the importance of shedding light on neurobiological links in order to optimize pain and depression management.
    BMC Psychiatry 06/2014; 14(1):187. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-14-187 · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background An important biological factor suggested in the pathophysiology of (recurrent) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) concerns a polymorphism in a gene encoding for the MTHFR-enzyme of the one-carbon (1-C)-metabolism. Integratively investigating key 1-C-components (folate, homocysteine, vitamin B6 and B12), including the possible effects of antidepressant medication and depressive state, could provide more insight in the possible association between the MTHFR-polymorphism and recurrent MDD. Methods We compared the MTHFR C677T-polymorphism together with the key 1-C-components in clinically ascertained patients with recurrent MDD (n=137) to age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n=73). Results First, patients had lower folate (t=2.25; p=.025) as compared to controls; a difference that resolved after correction for demographics (t=1.22; p=.223). Second, patients that were depressed during sampling had lower vitamin B6 (t=−2.070; p=.038) and higher homocysteine (t=2.404; p=.016) compared to those in remission. Finally, current use of antidepressants had no influence on the 1-C-components. Conclusions Despite investigation of a specific recurrently depressed patient population, we found no clear associations with the 1-C-cycle, except for higher homocysteine and lower vitamin B6 during the depressed state. This suggests that 1-C-cycle alterations in MDD are state-associated, possibly resulting from high levels of acute (psychological) stress, and may provide a treatment target to reduce cardiovascular risk in this population.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2014; 166:115–123. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.048 · 3.71 Impact Factor