The objective of the study was to examine the efficacy and the degree of adverse effects connected with atypical neuroleptic drugs and haloperidol by using a previously described Bayesian statistical method that includes both direct and indirect comparisons simultaneously.
The authors used the results of 30 double-blind, randomized studies including comparisons of 4 atypical neuroleptics and haloperidol, head-to-head or against placebo. We calculated the response ratios for drugs against placebo and thereafter the relative response ratios for one drug against another. With uniform priors, we calculated and ranked the posterior estimates of response ratios for antipsychotic effect, weight gain, and occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms.
All second-generation neuroleptics analyzed are fairly effective with response ratios against placebo ranging between 1.55 (credibility interval, 1.36-1.76) and 1.99 (1.76-2.26), with clozapine being the most effective and aripiprazole the least effective among them. The risk of inducing weight gain is clearly very high for all 5 neuroleptic drugs compared with placebo with response ratios of 12.21 (10.22-15.05) for olanzapine and 11.28 (6.89-17.77) for clozapine. There is a clear increased risk of extrapyramidal adverse effects for haloperidol compared with placebo as the response ratio is 2.33 (2.03-2.49). The other drugs all have considerably less risk of extrapyramidal adverse effects.
The 4 second-generation neuroleptics included in our meta-analysis show only small differences in overall efficacy, with clozapine being the most effective and aripiprazole the least effective among them. When the risk of adverse effects is analyzed, olanzapine and clozapine are afflicted with the highest risk of inducing weight gain and haloperidol with extrapyramidal symptoms. Even aripiprazole and risperidone, however, induce considerable weight gain compared with placebo but may be acceptable alternatives when tailoring drug treatment to the individual patient.
"It has been well established that antipsychotic drugs can lead to parkinsonism (Klemp et al., 2011; Leucht et al., 1999). However, it is worth pointing out that the presence of parkinsonism in untreated schizophrenia is not surprising or a new finding (Caligiuri et al., 1993; Chakos et al., 1992; Chatterjee et al., 1995; Honer et al., 2005; McCreadie et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper explores the role of clinical mental health diagnoses, contextual diagnoses, and the ethical practice of psychotherapy. There is a tendency among professionals to align themselves with one of these two camps and subsequently dismiss the other camp as invalid, incorrect, or unethical. This is a false dichotomy that, when subscribed to very strictly, can lead to harmful and unethical practice. A case is discussed regarding Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. A thorough analysis of the context and the DSM-IV-TR symptoms for the identified patient are provided. A discussion of ethical dilemmas and suggestions for practice follow.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context. Emergency medical workers often experience violence while performing their job functions. Phencyclidine (PCP)-intoxicated patients are often violent and difficult to control physically. A chemical restraint is frequently needed to assist in protecting both patients and staff from agitated persons. Objective. This study evaluated haloperidol as a chemical restraint in PCP-intoxicated patients. Methods. This is a retrospective case series of all PCP-positive patients who received haloperidol for behavioral control from April 2008 to April 2011 at a single large (944 bed), urban, tertiary-care hospital. All patients receiving haloperidol and having a toxicology screen positive for PCP were identified using an electronic medical record. Identified cases were then manually reviewed by investigators for adverse events. Results. Subjects included 59 adult patients who were acutely agitated requiring chemical restraint or sedation with haloperidol, and who tested positive for PCP. There were 20 females and 39 males, ranging in age from 19 to 54 years. Patients received haloperidol via the PO, IM, or IV routes in doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg. There were two adverse events (mild hypoxia and mild hypotension) found during chart review; neither were serious nor required change in patient disposition. Conclusions. In this study, haloperidol does not seem to cause harm when used in the management of PCP-intoxicated patients. Caution must always be exercised in the use of chemical restraint; further prospective study is warranted.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.