NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2) and β-catenin are important centrosome regulatory factors. The aim of this study was to detect the possible disparity in their expression among normal breast tissue, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), concomitant ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and pure DCIS, and to explore its correlation with clinicopathological factors.
We used immunohistochemistry to detect protein expression of Nek2 and β-catenin in breast cancer tissues from 60 cases of pure DCIS, 348 cases of IDC and 137 cases of concomitant DCIS with that in normal breast tissues from the same 137 concomitant DCIS patients as controls. As compared with normal tissue, expression of Nek2 and β-catenin in the cytoplasm was significantly increased in IDC and DCIS (P < 0.05), and variation in expression was also observed in different grades of IDC (P < 0.01). Also, cytoplasmic expression of Nek2 and and of β-catenin were correlated with each other in IDC and DCIS (P < 0.01). In addition, they were both related to Ki67 immunoreactivity (P < 0.05). Furthermore, our study also revealed a correlation between their expression and some clinicopathological factors. We found that Nek2 cytoplasmic expression was associated with grade and tumour size (P < 0.01) in IDC, whereas β-catenin cytomembrane expression showed significant variation with grades, TNM stages, lymphoid node status, oestrogen receptor status, and molecular subtype (P < 0.05); a difference in expression was also observed between IDC and DCIS (P < 0.05). Also, β-catenin cytoplasmic expression was associated with TNM stage (P < 0.05). Expression of Nek2 at the mRNA level was detected in 50 pairs of breast cancer specimens and matched normal tissues by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the result showed increased expression in IDC.
This study suggests that abnormal expression of Nek2 and β-catenin might be one of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, especially of abnormal tumour proliferation. They may represent new potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
"In our current filtering of 1q genes related to survival, CENPF (HR = 1.616; p-value = 4.90E-05) ranked first followed by NEK2 (HR = 1.641; p-value = 0.000163) which demonstrates the reliability of the strategy and the results obtained in the study. Commonality with most of the short-listed genes (CENPF, KIF14, NEK2, CKS1B and ASPM) is their positive association with proliferation marker Ki-67 [26,27,30,45,46], thereby, indicating their possible role in cell cycle related dysregulations and the resultant proliferation of breast cancer cells. However, it has been reported that simultaneous 1q gain/16q loss was related to low Ki-67 level (low proliferation) and high p27 expression of breast cancer cells . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomic aberrations are common in cancers and the long arm of chromosome 1 is known for its frequent amplifications in breast cancer. However, the key candidate genes of 1q, and their contribution in breast cancer pathogenesis remain unexplored. We have analyzed the gene expression profiles of 1635 breast tumor samples using meta-analysis based approach and identified clinically significant candidates from chromosome 1q. Seven candidate genes including exonuclease 1 (EXO1) are consistently over expressed in breast tumors, specifically in high grade and aggressive breast tumors with poor clinical outcome. We derived a EXO1 co-expression module from the mRNA profiles of breast tumors which comprises 1q candidate genes and their co-expressed genes. By integrative functional genomics investigation, we identified the involvement of EGFR, RAS, PI3K / AKT, MYC, E2F signaling in the regulation of these selected 1q genes in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Expression of EXO1 module was found as indicative of elevated cell proliferation, genomic instability, activated RAS/AKT/MYC/E2F1 signaling pathways and loss of p53 activity in breast tumors. mRNA-drug connectivity analysis indicates inhibition of RAS/PI3K as a possible targeted therapeutic approach for the patients with activated EXO1 module in breast tumors. Thus, we identified seven 1q candidate genes strongly associated with the poor survival of breast cancer patients and identified the possibility of targeting them with EGFR/RAS/PI3K inhibitors.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77553. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077553 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is a challenging task to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions in patients with biliary strictures. Here we analyze whether determination of target gene mRNA levels in intraductal brush cytology specimens may be used to improve the diagnosis of bile duct carcinoma.
Brush cytology specimens from 119 patients with biliary strictures (malignant: n = 72; benign: n = 47) were analyzed in a retrospective cohort study. mRNA of IGF-II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), homeobox B7 (HOXB7), Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), kinesin family member 2C (KIF2C) and serine/threonine kinase NEK2 was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR using the ΔCt method.
IGF2BP3 (p<0.0001), HOXB7 (p<0.0001), and NEK2 (p<0.0001) mRNA expression levels were significantly increased in patients with cholangiocarcinoma or pancreatic cancer. Median ΔCt values differed by 3.5 cycles (IGF2BP3), 2.8 cycles (HOXB7) and 1.3 cycles (NEK2) corresponding to 11-fold, 7-fold and 2.5-fold increased mRNA levels in malignant versus benign samples. Sensitivity to detect biliary cancer was 76.4% for IGF2BP3 (80.9% specificity); 72.2% for HOXB7 (78.7% specificity) and 65.3% for NEK2 (72.3% specificity), whereas routine cytology reached only 43.1% sensitivity (85.4% specificity). Diagnostic precision was further improved, when all three molecular markers were assessed in combination (77.8% sensitivity, 87.2% specificity) and achieved 87.5% sensitivity and 87.2% specificity when molecular markers were combined with routine cytology.
Our data suggest that measuring IGF2BP3, HOXB7 and NEK2 mRNA levels by RT-PCR in addition to cytology has the potential to improve detection of malignant biliary disorders from brush cytology specimens.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42141. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042141 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 50% of all malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) arise as neurofibromatosis type 1 associated lesions. In those patients malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are thought to arise through malignant transformation of a preexisting plexiform neurofibroma. The molecular changes associated with this transformation are still poorly understood. We sought to test the hypothesis that dysregulation of expression of kinases contributes to this malignant transformation. We analyzed expression of all 519 kinase genes in the human genome using the nanostring nCounter system. Twelve cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in a background of preexisting plexiform neurofibroma were included. Both components were separately sampled. Statistical analysis compared global changes in expression levels as well as changes observed in the pairwise comparison of samples taken from the same surgical specimen. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on tissue array slides to confirm expression of selected proteins. The expression pattern of kinase genes can separate malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and preexisting plexiform neurofibromas. The majority of kinase genes is downregulated rather than overexpressed with malignant transformation. The patterns of expression changes are complex without simple recurring alteration. Pathway analysis demonstrates that differentially expressed kinases are enriched for kinases involved in the direct regulation of mitosis, and several of these show increased expression in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Immunohistochemical studies for the mitotic regulators BUB1B, PBK and NEK2 confirm higher expression levels at the protein level. These results suggest that the malignant transformation of plexiform neurofibroma is associated with distinct changes in the expression of kinase genes. The patterns of these changes are complex and heterogeneous. There is no single unifying alteration. Kinases involved in mitotic regulation are particularly enriched in the pool of differentially expressed kinases. Some of these are overexpressed and are therefore possible targets for kinase inhibitors.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 1 February 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.242.
Modern Pathology 02/2013; 26(7). DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2012.242 · 6.19 Impact Factor
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