Bardoxolone methyl: a targeted antioxidant.
Renal Failure (Impact Factor: 0.94). 01/2011; 33(10):1051. DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2011.618970
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nrf2-deficient female mice develop lupus-like autoimmune nephritis.BackgroundNF-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a basic leucine zipper transcriptional activator essential for the coordinate transcriptional induction of antioxidant enzymes and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes through the antioxidant response element/electrophile response element. The Nrf2-deficient mice were found to develop normally under standard laboratory conditions. However, upon closer examination, we found that aged female Nrf2-deficient mice displayed a shortened lifespan and developed severe glomerulonephritis. The present study investigated the glomerulonephritis findings in Nrf2-deficient mice.Methods To evaluate glomerular lesions of Nrf2-deficient mice, histological and functional analyses were performed. The amounts of serum immunoglobulins, anti-double-stranded (ds) DNA antibody, and lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) also were measured.ResultsNrf2-deficient female mice over 60 weeks of age developed severe nephritis characterized by cellular proliferation, lobular formation, crescent formation, and subepithelial electron-dense deposits. In immunofluorescent assays, Nrf2-deficient female mice showed mesangial deposits and massive granular deposits of IgG, IgM, and C3 along the capillary walls. Higher serum levels of IgG, anti-dsDNA antibody, lower creatinine clearance, and slight splenomegaly also were found in Nrf2-deficient female mice. A higher concentration of TBARS also was found in Nrf2-deficient female mice.Conclusions These data indicate that the aged Nrf2-deficient female mice develop lupus-like autoimmune nephritis and suggest that nrf2 is one of the genes determining susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Analysis of nephritis in the Nrf2-deficient female mouse may clarify the mechanisms leading to the development of lupus disease.Kidney International 01/2001; 60(4):1343-1353. · 7.92 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.