[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intracellular and tissue balance of oxidant and antioxidant forces is a potential therapeutic target for a variety of agents in the treatment of complications due to chronic disease including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. There are a myriad of processes controlled at the level of genes, transcription factors, and protein messages that work to control the normal use of oxidative reactions within cells. Loss of control of these processes may lead to reversible dysfunction in many cell lines including the podocyte, renal tubular cells, and cardiac myocytes. Bardoxolone methyl is a novel nuclear regulator factor (Nrf-2) activator which works to tip the balance of effects towards antioxidation and as an observation made serendipitously, improves renal filtration function in humans after approximately 12 weeks of therapy. The improvement in estimated glomerular filtration can be up to 30% in those with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease. However, experimental evidence suggests there may be a consequence of relative hyperfiltration in diseased kidneys as well as potential adverse effects on skeletal and cardiac myocytes. Only large, prospective randomized trials with carefully collected and adjudicated clinical outcomes will inform the research community on the therapeutic risks and benefits of this important new agent.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 06/2012; 6:141-9. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S26714 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.
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