The Evolution of the Mitochondria-to-Calcium Release Units Relationship in Vertebrate Skeletal Muscles

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
BioMed Research International (Impact Factor: 2.71). 10/2011; 2011(1110-7243):830573. DOI: 10.1155/2011/830573
Source: PubMed


The spatial relationship between mitochondria and the membrane systems, more specifically the calcium release units (CRUs) of skeletal muscle, is of profound functional significance. CRUs are the sites at which Ca(2+) is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during muscle activation. Close mitochondrion-CRU proximity allows the organelles to take up Ca(2+) and thus stimulate aerobic metabolism. Skeletal muscles of most mammals display an extensive, developmentally regulated, close mitochondrion-CRU association, fostered by tethering links between the organelles. A comparative look at the vertebrate subphylum however shows that this specific association is only present in the higher vertebrates (mammals). Muscles in all other vertebrates, even if capable of fast activity, rely on a less precise and more limited mitochondrion-CRU proximity, despite some tethering connections. This is most evident in fish muscles. Clustering of free subsarcolemmal mitochondria in proximity of capillaries is also more frequently achieved in mammalian than in other vertebrates.

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Available from: Simona Boncompagni, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "Probably, the concomitant decrease in apparent ADP-affinity is not for increasing energetic communication via the CK system, but due to the simultaneous development of the SR. The SR is less developed in lower vertebrates (Santer, 1985; Franzini-Armstrong and Boncompagni, 2011). In mammal heart, the SR develops significantly postnatally (Dan et al., 2007; Huang et al., 2008), and so does its association with mitochondria (Boncompagni et al., 2009). "
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