Human rhinovirus species associated with hospitalizations for acute respiratory illness in young US children.
ABSTRACT The contribution of human rhinovirus (HRV) to severe acute respiratory illness (ARI) is unclear.
To assess the association between HRV species detection and ARI hospitalizations.
Children <5 years old hospitalized for ARI were prospectively enrolled between December 2003 and April 2005 in 3 US counties. Asymptomatic controls were enrolled between December 2003 and March 2004 and between October 2004 and April 2005 in clinics. Nasal and throat swab samples were tested for HRV and other viruses (ie, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, and influenza virus) by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and genetic sequencing identified HRV species and types. HRV species detection was compared between controls and patients hospitalized during months in which controls were enrolled.
A total of 1867 children with 1947 ARI hospitalizations and 784 controls with 790 clinic visits were enrolled and tested for HRV. The HRV-A detection rate among participants ≥24 months old was 8.1% in the hospitalized group and 2.2% in the control group (P = .009), and the HRV-C detection rates among those ≥6 months old were 8.2% and 3.9%, respectively (P = .002); among younger children, the detection rates for both species were similar between groups. The HRV-B detection rate was ≤1%. A broad diversity of HRV types was observed in both groups. Clinical presentations were similar among HRV species. Compared with children infected with other viruses, children with HRV detected were similar for severe hospital outcomes and more commonly had histories or diagnoses of asthma or wheezing.
HRV-A and HRV-C were associated with ARI hospitalization and serious illness outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Background The relative incidence and clinical impact of individual respiratory viruses remains unclear among children presenting to the hospital emergency department with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI).Methods During two winter periods, respiratory virus real-time multiplex PCR results were evaluated from children (< 18 years) presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital with ARTI that had been sampled within 48 hours of hospital presentation. In an attempt to identify virus-specific distinguishing clinical features, single virus infections were correlated with presenting signs and symptoms, clinical findings and outcomes using multivariate logistic regression.ResultsIn total, 274 children with ARTI were evaluated and most were aged¿<¿3 years (236/274, 86%). PCR detected respiratory viruses in 224/274 (81.8%) children and included 162 (59%) single and 62 (23%) mixed virus infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) single virus infections were common among children aged¿<¿3 years, but proportional differences compared to older children were only significant for RSV (95% CI 1.3¿15). Clinical differentiation between viral ARTIs was not possible due to common shared presenting signs and symptoms and the high frequency of mixed viral infections. We observed virus-associated outcome differences among children aged¿<¿3 years. Oxygen treatment was associated with RSV (OR 3.6) and inversely correlated with FLU (OR 0.05). Treatment with steroids (OR 3.4) or bronchodilators (OR 3.4) was associated with HRV. Severe respiratory complications were associated with HRV (OR 3.5) and inversely correlated with RSV (OR 0.24).Conclusions Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in young children presenting to the hospital emergency department with ARTI and require PCR diagnosis since presenting signs and symptoms are not discriminant for a type of virus. RSV and HRV bear a high burden of morbidity in the pediatric clinical setting.BMC Pediatrics 12/2014; 14(1):297. DOI:10.1186/s12887-014-0297-0 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Incidence estimates of hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia among children in the United States that are based on prospective data collection are limited. Updated estimates of pneumonia that has been confirmed radiographically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among children younger than 18 years of age in three hospitals in Memphis, Nashville, and Salt Lake City. We excluded children with recent hospitalization or severe immunosuppression. Blood and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for pathogen detection with the use of multiple methods. Chest radiographs were reviewed independently by study radiologists. From January 2010 through June 2012, we enrolled 2638 of 3803 eligible children (69%), 2358 of whom (89%) had radiographic evidence of pneumonia. The median age of the children was 2 years (interquartile range, 1 to 6); 497 of 2358 children (21%) required intensive care, and 3 (<1%) died. Among 2222 children with radiographic evidence of pneumonia and with specimens available for bacterial and viral testing, a viral or bacterial pathogen was detected in 1802 (81%), one or more viruses in 1472 (66%), bacteria in 175 (8%), and both bacterial and viral pathogens in 155 (7%). The annual incidence of pneumonia was 15.7 cases per 10,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.9 to 16.5), with the highest rate among children younger than 2 years of age (62.2 cases per 10,000 children; 95% CI, 57.6 to 67.1). Respiratory syncytial virus was more common among children younger than 5 years of age than among older children (37% vs. 8%), as were adenovirus (15% vs. 3%) and human metapneumovirus (15% vs. 8%). Mycoplasma pneumoniae was more common among children 5 years of age or older than among younger children (19% vs. 3%). The burden of hospitalization for children with community-acquired pneumonia was highest among the very young, with respiratory viruses the most commonly detected causes of pneumonia. (Funded by the Influenza Division of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.).New England Journal of Medicine 02/2015; 372(9):835-45. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1405870 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infections with human rhinovirus (HRV) are commonly associated with acute upper and lower respiratory tract disease and asthma exacerbations. The role that HRVs play in these diseases suggests it is important to understand host-specific or virus-specific factors that contribute to pathogenesis. Since species A HRVs are often associated with more serious HRV disease than species B HRVs, differences in immune responses they induce should inform disease pathogenesis. To identify species differences in induced responses, we evaluated 3 species A viruses, HRV 25, 31 and 36 and 3 species B viruses, HRV 4, 35 and 48 by exposing human PBMCs to HRV infected Calu-3 cells. To evaluate the potential effect of memory induced by previous HRV infection on study responses, we tested cord blood mononuclear cells that should be HRV naïve. There were HRV-associated increases (significant increase compared to mock-infected cells) for one or more HRVs for IP-10 and IL-15 that was unaffected by addition of PBMCs, for MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IFN-α, and HGF only with addition of PBMCs, and for ENA-78 only without addition of PBMCs. All three species B HRVs induced higher levels, compared to A HRVs, of MIP-1α and MIP-1β with PBMCs and ENA-78 without PBMCs. In contrast, addition of CBMCs had less effect and did not induce MIP-1α, MIP-1β, or IFN-α nor block ENA-78 production. Addition of CBMCs did, however, increase IP-10 levels for HRV 35 and HRV 36 infection. The presence of an effect with PBMCs and no effect with CBMCs for some responses suggest differences between the two types of cells possibly because of the presence of HRV memory responses in PBMCs and not CBMCs or limited response capacity for the immature CBMCs relative to PBMCs. Thus, our results indicate that different HRV strains can induce different patterns of cytokines and chemokines; some of these differences may be due to differences in memory responses induced by past HRV infections, and other differences related to virus factors that can inform disease pathogenesis.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114322. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114322 · 3.53 Impact Factor