Human rhinovirus species associated with hospitalizations for acute respiratory illness in young US children.
ABSTRACT The contribution of human rhinovirus (HRV) to severe acute respiratory illness (ARI) is unclear.
To assess the association between HRV species detection and ARI hospitalizations.
Children <5 years old hospitalized for ARI were prospectively enrolled between December 2003 and April 2005 in 3 US counties. Asymptomatic controls were enrolled between December 2003 and March 2004 and between October 2004 and April 2005 in clinics. Nasal and throat swab samples were tested for HRV and other viruses (ie, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, and influenza virus) by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and genetic sequencing identified HRV species and types. HRV species detection was compared between controls and patients hospitalized during months in which controls were enrolled.
A total of 1867 children with 1947 ARI hospitalizations and 784 controls with 790 clinic visits were enrolled and tested for HRV. The HRV-A detection rate among participants ≥24 months old was 8.1% in the hospitalized group and 2.2% in the control group (P = .009), and the HRV-C detection rates among those ≥6 months old were 8.2% and 3.9%, respectively (P = .002); among younger children, the detection rates for both species were similar between groups. The HRV-B detection rate was ≤1%. A broad diversity of HRV types was observed in both groups. Clinical presentations were similar among HRV species. Compared with children infected with other viruses, children with HRV detected were similar for severe hospital outcomes and more commonly had histories or diagnoses of asthma or wheezing.
HRV-A and HRV-C were associated with ARI hospitalization and serious illness outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (HRV) are the main cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) in infants. Viral and host-related risk factors for severe disease have also not been clearly established. Objective to assess whether certain viral features of RSV and, or HRV are associated with severe ALRTI. Study design: RSV and HRV were studied in nasopharyngeal samples of infants by immunofluorescence, Luminex® and/or real-time RT-PCR assays. Quantitation and genotyping of RSV and HRV by PCR were done. Results Of 124 virus positive specimens, 74 (59.7%) had RSV; 22 (17.7%) HRV and 28 (22.6%) RSV-HRV co-infection. Hospitalization was required in 57/74 RSV infants (77.0%); in 10/22 HRV cases (45.5%) (p= 0.006) and in 15/28 co-infected by both viruses (53.6%) (p= 0.003). Severe cases were 33/74 (44.6%) RSV infections, 2/22 HRV cases (9.1%), (p < 0.002) and 6/28 (21.4%) patients co-infected by RSV-HRV (p <0.026). Three genotypes (NA1, B7, B9) of RSV circulated during the study. In 33 severe infants, NA1 was detected in 19 cases (57.6%); B7 in 13 (39.4%) and B9 in 1 (3.0%) (p < 0.01; OR = 10.0). RSV loads were similar between outpatients and hospitalized infants (p = 0.7) and among different severities (p = 0.7). NA1 loads were higher than other strains (p = 0.049). Three geno-groups of HRV circulated homogeneously. Conclusion in very young infants, RSV cause more severe disease than HRV. Co-infection does not increase the severity of illness. NA1 RSV genotype was associated with major frequency of hospitalization, severe respiratory disease and higher viral load.Journal of Clinical Virology 09/2014; 61(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2014.06.004
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ABSTRACT: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a well-recognized cause of long-term care home (LTCH) outbreaks of respiratory illness. However, there are limited data on the molecular epidemiology of the HRV types involved. To determine whether a large respiratory outbreak in a LTCH was caused by a single type of HRV, and to describe the clinical impact of the outbreak. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from residents with one or more of the following: fever, cough, rhinitis, or congestion. Specimens were interrogated by multiplex PCR using the ResPlex II assay. Samples positive for HRV were then submitted for genotyping by partial sequence analysis of the 5' untranslated (UTR) and viral protein (VP) 1 capsid regions. Of 71 screened, 56 residents were positive for a HRV during an outbreak that lasted 5.5 weeks; 27 healthcare workers also had respiratory symptoms. Three residents were transferred to hospital and 2 died. Seven units in two wings of the LTCH were affected, resulting in 3152.5 resident unit closure days. Three different HRV genotypes were identified, although HRV-A1 dominated. This large outbreak of HRVs among residents and healthcare workers in a LTCH was associated with substantial resident and staff morbidity as well as significant unit closures. Multiple types of HRV were implicated but an HRV-A1 type dominated, warranting further investigation into viral determinants for virulence and transmission.Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 07/2013; 58(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2013.06.037
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ABSTRACT: A newly discovered group of human rhinoviruses (HRVs) has been classified as the HRV-C species based on distinct genomic features. HRV-Cs circulate worldwide, and are important causes of upper and lower respiratory illnesses. Methods to culture and produce these viruses have recently been developed, and should enable identification of unique features of HRV-C replication and biology.Microbes and Infection 01/2012; 14(6):485-94. DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2011.12.011