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Available from: Matthias Eberl, May 08, 2015
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    • "A subset of neutrophil-related immature myeloid cells called myeloid-derived suppressor cells play a critical role in regulation of inflammation in cancer and potentially other conditions (Gabrilovich and Nagaraj, 2009). Neutrophils may also be able to produce the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 (Zhang et al., 2009; De Santo et al., 2010), though this is disputed in case of human neutrophils (Davey et al., 2011). Further information can be found in recent studies (Serhan et al., 2008; Gabrilovich and Nagaraj, 2009; Soehnlein and Lindbom, 2010; Mantovani et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils have long been considered simple suicide killers at the bottom of the hierarchy of the immune response. That view began to change 10-20 yr ago, when the sophisticated mechanisms behind how neutrophils locate and eliminate pathogens and regulate immunity and inflammation were discovered. The last few years witnessed a new wave of discoveries about additional novel and unexpected functions of these cells. Neutrophils have been proposed to participate in protection against intracellular pathogens such as viruses and mycobacteria. They have been shown to intimately shape the adaptive immune response at various levels, including marginal zone B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and T cell populations, and even to control NK cell homeostasis. Neutrophils have been shown to mediate an alternative pathway of systemic anaphylaxis and to participate in allergic skin reactions. Finally, neutrophils were found to be involved in physiological and pathological processes beyond the immune system, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and thrombus formation. Many of those functions appear to be related to their unique ability to release neutrophil extracellular traps even in the absence of pathogens. This review summarizes those novel findings on versatile functions of neutrophils and how they change our view of neutrophil biology in health and disease.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/2013; 210(7):1283-99. DOI:10.1084/jem.20122220 · 12.52 Impact Factor
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    • "Production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 by neutrophils has been proposed [60, 66]. However, this was only observed in murine neutrophils [67] and will, therefore, not be discussed in this review. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are essential effector cells in the host defense against invading pathogens. Recently, novel neutrophil functions have emerged in addition to their classical anti-microbial role. One of these functions is the suppression of T cell responses. In this respect, neutrophils share similarities with granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs). In this review, we will discuss the similarities and differences between neutrophils and G-MDSCs. Various types of G-MDSCs have been described, ranging from immature to mature cells shaping the immune response by different immune suppressive mechanisms. However, all types of G-MDSCs share distinct features of neutrophils, such as surface markers and morphology. We propose that G-MDSCs are heterogeneous and represent novel phenotypes of neutrophils, capable of suppressing the immune response. In this review, we will attempt to clarify the differences and similarities between neutrophils and G-MDSCs and attempt to facilitate further research.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 02/2013; 70(20). DOI:10.1007/s00018-013-1286-4 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid cells are the most abundant nucleated haematopoietic cells in the human body and are a collection of distinct cell populations with many diverse functions. The three groups of terminally differentiated myeloid cells - macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes - are essential for the normal function of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Mounting evidence indicates that the tumour microenvironment alters myeloid cells and can convert them into potent immunosuppressive cells. Here, we consider myeloid cells as an intricately connected, complex, single system and we focus on how tumours manipulate the myeloid system to evade the host immune response.
    Nature Reviews Immunology 03/2012; 12(4):253-68. DOI:10.1038/nri3175 · 34.99 Impact Factor
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