Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-1 Infection and Tuberculosis

University of California, San Francisco, 995 Potrero Ave., Bldg. 80, Ward 84, San Francisco, CA 94110-2897, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 10/2011; 365(16):1482-91. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1013607
Source: PubMed


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is indicated during tuberculosis treatment in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the timing for the initiation of ART when tuberculosis is diagnosed in patients with various levels of immune compromise is not known.
We conducted an open-label, randomized study comparing earlier ART (within 2 weeks after the initiation of treatment for tuberculosis) with later ART (between 8 and 12 weeks after the initiation of treatment for tuberculosis) in HIV-1 infected patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of less than 250 per cubic millimeter and suspected tuberculosis. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who survived and did not have a new (previously undiagnosed) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness at 48 weeks.
A total of 809 patients with a median baseline CD4+ T-cell count of 77 per cubic millimeter and an HIV-1 RNA level of 5.43 log(10) copies per milliliter were enrolled. In the earlier-ART group, 12.9% of patients had a new AIDS-defining illness or died by 48 weeks, as compared with 16.1% in the later-ART group (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.8 to 8.1; P=0.45). Among patients with screening CD4+ T-cell counts of less than 50 per cubic millimeter, 15.5% of patients in the earlier-ART group versus 26.6% in the later-ART group had a new AIDS-defining illness or died (95% CI, 1.5 to 20.5; P=0.02). Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was more common with earlier ART than with later ART (11% vs. 5%, P=0.002). The rate of viral suppression at 48 weeks was 74% and did not differ between the groups (P=0.38).
Overall, earlier ART did not reduce the rate of new AIDS-defining illness and death, as compared with later ART. In persons with CD4+ T-cell counts of less than 50 per cubic millimeter, earlier ART was associated with a lower rate of new AIDS-defining illnesses and death. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ACTG A5221 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00108862.).

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    • "For instance, in a recent study, it was demonstrated that the optimal timing for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) varies in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of less than 50 per cubic millimeter benefited substantially from earlier ART with a lower rate of new AIDS-defining illnesses and mortality as compared with later ART, while those with larger CD4+ T-cell counts did not have such a benefit (Havlir et al. 2011). The inherent heterogeneity across patients suggests a transition from the traditional " one size fits all " approach to modern personalized medicine. "
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    ABSTRACT: Personalized medicine has received increasing attention among statisticians, computer scientists, and clinical practitioners. A major component of personalized medicine is the estimation of individualized treatment rules (ITRs). Recently, Zhao et al. (2012) proposed outcome weighted learning (OWL) to construct ITRs that directly optimize the clinical outcome. Although OWL opens the door to introducing machine learning techniques to optimal treatment regimes, it still has some problems in performance. In this article, we propose a general framework, called Residual Weighted Learning (RWL), to improve finite sample performance. Unlike OWL which weights misclassification errors by clinical outcomes, RWL weights these errors by residuals of the outcome from a regression fit on clinical covariates excluding treatment assignment. We utilize the smoothed ramp loss function in RWL, and provide a difference of convex (d.c.) algorithm to solve the corresponding non-convex optimization problem. By estimating residuals with linear models or generalized linear models, RWL can effectively deal with different types of outcomes, such as continuous, binary and count outcomes. We also propose variable selection methods for linear and nonlinear rules, respectively, to further improve the performance. We show that the resulting estimator of the treatment rule is consistent. We further obtain a rate of convergence for the difference between the expected outcome using the estimated ITR and that of the optimal treatment rule. The performance of the proposed RWL methods is illustrated in simulation studies and in an analysis of cystic fibrosis clinical trial data.
    Journal of the American Statistical Association 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/01621459.2015.1093947 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    • "During coinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV, each infecting organism potentiates the effects of the other.10,11 For patients with tuberculosis who are coinfected with HIV, early addition of antiretroviral therapy can be lifesaving.12–14 There are important interactions between rifamycins, antiretrovirals and the cytochrome P450-3A (CYP3A) system. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis develops spontaneous resistance mutants to virtually every drug in use. Courses of therapy select for these mutants and drug-resistant organisms emerge. The development of drug-resistant organisms has reached the point that drug resistance now threatens to undermine global success against tuberculosis (TB). New drugs are needed. The last new class of drugs specifically developed for treatment of TB was the rifamycins over 40 years ago. New funding sources and the development of product development partnerships have energized the TB drug development effort. There are now more TB drugs in development than at any time in the past. The first of these drugs to be developed and marketed was bedaquiline. Bedaquiline has an entirely novel mechanism of action and so should be active against otherwise highly resistant organisms. It acts on the transmembrane component of adenosine triphosphate synthase and acts by preventing electron transport. This raises the exciting possibility that bedaquiline may be active against less metabolically active organisms. Drug-drug interactions between rifamycins and the cytochrome P450-3A system will limit bedaquiline's utility and create complexity in treatment regimens. In clinical trials, treatment with bedaquiline added to a background multidrug-resistant TB regimen was associated with earlier culture conversion and higher cure rates, but there were unexplained excess deaths in the bedaquiline arms of these trials. Food and Drug Administration approved bedaquiline for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be provided. They required a black box warning about excess deaths and require that a phase III trial be completed. A planned Phase III trial is being reorganized. While bedaquiline is an exciting drug and marks a dramatic moment in the history of TB treatment, its ultimate place in the anti-TB drug armamentarium is unclear pending the Phase III trial and the development of other new drugs that are in the pipeline.
    Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 07/2014; 10(1):597-602. DOI:10.2147/TCRM.S37743 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    • "Results from studies were inconsistent. Some found early initiation of HAART within 4 weeks after TB treatment can reduce mortality [12-14], but others found the timing had no significant impact [15,30,31]. The benefit of early HAART (within 30 days) is contingent on increased risk and severity of IRIS accompanied with higher re-hospitalization rate and longer TB treatment duration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Optimal timing for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-TB coinfected patients is challenging for clinicians. We aim to evaluate the impact of different timing of HAART initiation on TB outcome of HIV-infected adults in Taiwan. Methods A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted through linking the HIV and TB registries of Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) during 1997 to 2006. Clinical data of HIV-TB co-infected patients, including the presence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), was collected through medical records review. The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality within 1 year following TB diagnosis. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to explore the probability of death and IRIS after TB diagnosis by adjusting for confounding factors and factors of interest. The probability of survival and TB IRIS were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between different HAART initiation timing groups by the log-rank test. Results There were 229 HIV-TB co-infected patients included for analysis and 60 cases (26.2%) died within one year. Besides decreasing age and increasing CD4 lymphocyte count, having started HAART during TB treatment was significantly associated with better survival (adjusted Hazard Ratio was 0.11, 95% CI 0.06–0.21). As to the timing of HAART initiation, there was only non-significant benefit on survival among cases initiating HAART within 15 days, at 16–30 days and at 31–60 days of TB treatment than initiating after 60 days. Cases with HAART initiated after 30 days had lower risk in developing IRIS than cases with HAART initiated earlier. Cases with IRIS had significantly higher rate of re-hospitalization (49% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and prolonged hospitalization (28 days vs. 18.5 days, p < 0.01). Conclusion The present study found that starting HAART during TB treatment is associated with better one-year survival, although earlier initiation within 60 days of TB treatment did not show statistical differences in survival than later initiation. Initiation of HAART within 30 days appeared to increase the risk of IRIS. Deferring HAART to 31–60 days of TB treatment might be optimal after considering the risks and benefits.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 06/2014; 14(1):304. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-304 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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