Inactivation of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase contributes to the respiratory deficit of yeast frataxin-deficient cells.
ABSTRACT Friedreich's ataxia is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by reduced expression of mitochondrial frataxin. Frataxin deficiency causes impairment in respiratory capacity, disruption of iron homoeostasis and hypersensitivity to oxidants. Although the redox properties of NAD (NAD+ and NADH) are essential for energy metabolism, only few results are available concerning homoeostasis of these nucleotides in frataxin-deficient cells. In the present study, we show that the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle is impaired in Saccharomyces cerevisiae frataxin-deficient cells (Δyfh1) due to decreased activity of cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of malate dehydrogenase and to complete inactivation of the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (Aat1). A considerable decrease in the amount of mitochondrial acetylated proteins was observed in the Δyfh1 mutant compared with wild-type. Aat1 is acetylated in wild-type mitochondria and deacetylated in Δyfh1 mitochondria suggesting that inactivation could be due to this post-translational modification. Mutants deficient in iron-sulfur cluster assembly or lacking mitochondrial DNA also showed decreased activity of Aat1, suggesting that Aat1 inactivation was a secondary phenotype in Δyfh1 cells. Interestingly, deletion of the AAT1 gene in a wild-type strain caused respiratory deficiency and disruption of iron homoeostasis without any sensitivity to oxidative stress. Our results show that secondary inactivation of Aat1 contributes to the amplification of the respiratory defect observed in Δyfh1 cells. Further implication of mitochondrial protein deacetylation in the physiology of frataxin-deficient cells is anticipated.
- Metabolism 09/1970; 19(8):555-61. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that increased mitochondrial metabolism and the concomitant decrease in NADH levels mediate calorie restriction (CR)-induced life span extension. The mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form) and NADH, and it is unclear how CR relays increased mitochondrial metabolism to multiple cellular pathways that reside in spatially distinct compartments. Here we show that the mitochondrial components of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle (Mdh1 [malate dehydrogenase] and Aat1 [aspartate amino transferase]) and the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle (Gut2, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) are novel longevity factors in the CR pathway in yeast. Overexpressing Mdh1, Aat1, and Gut2 extend life span and do not synergize with CR. Mdh1 and Aat1 overexpressions require both respiration and the Sir2 family to extend life span. The mdh1Deltaaat1Delta double mutation blocks CR-mediated life span extension and also prevents the characteristic decrease in the NADH levels in the cytosolic/nuclear pool, suggesting that the malate-aspartate shuttle plays a major role in the activation of the downstream targets of CR such as Sir2. Overexpression of the NADH shuttles may also extend life span by increasing the metabolic fitness of the cells. Together, these data suggest that CR may extend life span and ameliorate age-associated metabolic diseases by activating components of the NADH shuttles.Genes & Development 05/2008; 22(7):931-44. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lysine acetylation and its regulatory enzymes are known to have pivotal roles in mammalian cellular physiology. However, the extent and function of this modification in prokaryotic cells remain largely unexplored, thereby presenting a hurdle to further functional study of this modification in prokaryotic systems. Here we report the first global screening of lysine acetylation, identifying 138 modification sites in 91 proteins from Escherichia coli. None of the proteins has been previously associated with this modification. Among the identified proteins are transcriptional regulators, as well as others with diverse functions. Interestingly, more than 70% of the acetylated proteins are metabolic enzymes and translation regulators, suggesting an intimate link of this modification to energy metabolism. The new dataset suggests that lysine acetylation could be abundant in prokaryotic cells. In addition, these results also imply that functions of lysine acetylation beyond regulation of gene expression are evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that bacterial lysine acetylation is regulated in response to stress stimuli.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 09/2008; 8(2):215-25. · 7.25 Impact Factor