[Types of hemodialysis vascular access in patients on renal replacement therapy and its complications during a one year observation period].
ABSTRACT The type of vascular access is an important determinant of complications in the dialysis population. The aim of the study was to evaluate types of hemodialysis vascular access at hemodialysis start, in the course of treatment and complications during a one year observation period. The study group consisted of 213 patients [126 (59%) males; 87 (41%) females] treated for 54 months (range from 2 to 384 months) by maintenance hemodialysis at the Nephrology Department of the University Hospital. Mean age of the patients equaled 57.4 years and ranged from 21 to 91 years. The observation period began on June 1st, 2009 and finished on May 31st, 2010. At the start of the dialysis therapy - 99 (46.5%) patients had arterio-venous fistula (AVF), 81 (38.0%) temporary catheters (TC), and 33 (15.5%) permanent catheters (PC). At the beginning of the one-year observation period, 161 (75.6%) of the patients were treated using an AVF, 37 (17.4%) using a CP, 11 (5.1%) CT, and 4 (1.9%) using an artificial graft (AVG). At the end of the one year observation period - 179 (84%) patients were dialyzed using AVF, while 30 (14.1%) patients on PC, and 4 (1.9%) using a AVG. Statistically significant differences in possessing AVF were noted between start of renal replacement therapy and the start and finish of the one year observation period (p < 0.0001), as well as beginning and finish of the observation period (p < 0.002). During the observation period - 37 (20.7%) patients with an AVF required intervention due to complications associated with vascular access; where 4 from 11 (36.4%) patients in this group had AVF located on the arm and 33 from 150 (22.0%) on the forearm. The most common complications associated with AVF were thrombosis (23 = 14.3%), narrowing of the fistula (9 = 5.6%), too high output flow (HOF) 2 = 1.2% and the steal syndrome (SS) 3 (1.9%). Infectious complications were noted in 4 from 37 patients with PC (10.8%), and significantly less with AVF-4 from 161 (2.5%) (p < 0.0001). AVG infection occurred in 2 (50%) individuals of this group. Conclusions: AVF created using patients' own vessels of the forearm is characterized with decreased risk of complications in comparison to fistulas made of artificial materials or permanent catheters. However, fistula thrombosis of the AVF is still the most common complication requiring surgical intervention.
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ABSTRACT: The use of arteriovenous fistula over a central venous catheter in hemodialysis patients is recommended whenever possible. It has become the gold standard among all the available permanent vascular accesses for hemodialysis as it is associated with less complications. The aim of our study was to analyze the type of vascular access in hemodialysis patients in our country, FYR of Macedonia and to see its association with other variables recorded by the National Renal Registry in 2009. Data were collected by 18 hemodialysis centers in the country. A total of 1,457 patients were analyzed. One hundred and ninety one patients were incident, and 164 out of 1,457 died during the year. Except for 9 patients, all the others had data on type of vascular access, as well as data on any vascular access intervention performed during the year. The overall mean age was 58.8 ± 13.1 years. Eighty-nine percent of the non-incident patients (prevalent plus those who died during the year) had arteriovenous fistula, 10.6% central venous catheter and 0.2% vascular graft. When incident to non-incident patients were compared, incident patients were significantly older, had significantly higher mortality and significantly lower percentage of arteriovenous fistula. Patients with arteriovenous fistula had significantly longer dialysis vintage and significantly less deaths compared to those with central venous catheters. The study showed that the number of non-incident hemodialysis patients with arteriovenous fistula in the country was high. The incident hemodialysis patients have high number of central venous catheters as vascular access for hemodialysis and significantly higher mortality compared to non-incident patients. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (3): 209-211.Hippokratia 07/2014; 18(3):209-11. · 0.36 Impact Factor