Increasing national burden of hospitalizations for skin and soft tissue infections in children
ABSTRACT The number of children requiring treatment of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) has increased since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
The 2000, 2003, and 2006 Kids' Inpatient Databases were queried for patients with a primary diagnosis of SSTI. Weighted data were analyzed to estimate temporal changes in incidence, incision and drainage (I&D) rate, and economic burden. Factors associated with I&D were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression.
Pediatric SSTI admissions increased (1) in number, (2) as a fraction of all hospital admissions, and (3) in incidence per 100,000 children from the years 2000 (17,525 ± 838; 0.65%; 23.2) to 2003 (27,463 ± 1652; 0.99%; 36.2) and 2006 (48,228 ± 2223; 1.77%; 62.7). Children younger than 3 years accounted for 49.6% of SSTI admissions in 2006, up from 32.5% in 2000. Utilization of I&D increased during the study period from 26.0% to 43.8%. Factors most associated with requiring I&D were age less than 3 years and calendar year 2006 (both P < .001). Hospital costs per patient increased over time and were higher in the group of patients who required I&D ($4296 ± $84 vs $3521 ± $81; P < .001; year 2006). Aggregate national costs reached $184.0 ± $9.4 million in 2006.
The recent spike in pediatric SSTIs has disproportionately affected children younger than 3 years, and an increasing fraction of these children require I&D. The national economic burden is substantial.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. Hospitalizations for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) are common. Optimizing antibiotic use for ABSSSIs requires an understanding of current management. The objective of this study was to evaluate antibiotic prescribing practices and factors affecting prescribing in a diverse group of hospitals. Design. Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Setting. Seven community and academic hospitals. Methods. Children and adults hospitalized between June 2010 and May 2012 for cellulitis, wound infection, or cutaneous abscess were eligible. The primary endpoint was a composite of 2 prescribing practices representing potentially avoidable antibiotic exposure: (1) use of antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity against gram-negative bacteria or (2) treatment duration greater than 10 days. Results. A total of 533 cases were included: 320 with nonpurulent cellulitis, 44 with wound infection or purulent cellulitis, and 169 with abscess. Of 492 cases with complete prescribing data, the primary endpoint occurred in 394 (80%) cases and varied significantly across hospitals (64%-97%; P < .001). By logistic regression, independent predictors of the primary endpoint included wound infection or purulent cellulitis (odds ratio [OR], 5.12 [95% confidence interval (CI)], 1.46-17.88), head or neck involvement (OR, 2.83 [95% CI, 1.17-6.82]), adult cases (OR, 2.20 [95% CI, 1.18-4.11]), and admission to a community hospital (OR, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.05-3.44]). Conclusions. Among patients hospitalized for ABSSSI, use of antibiotics with broad gram-negative activity or treatment courses longer than 10 days were common. There may be substantial opportunity to reduce antibiotic exposure through shorter courses of therapy targeting gram-positive bacteria.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 10/2014; 35(10):1241-1250. DOI:10.1086/678056 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Hospitalizations for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) in children are increasingly frequent, but little is known about antibiotic utilization. In adults, recent studies suggest substantial opportunity to reduce broad-spectrum antibiotic use and shorten therapy. We sought to determine whether similar opportunity exists in children. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of a pediatric cohort taken from a multicenter, retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized for ABSSSI between June 1, 2010, and May 31, 2012. The prespecified primary endpoint was a composite of 2 prescribing practices: (1) use of antibiotics with broad Gram-negative activity or (2) treatment duration >10 days. Results: One-hundred and two patients <= 18 years old were included: 43 had non-purulent cellulitis, 19 had wound infection or purulent cellulitis and 40 had cutaneous abscess. The median age was 5 years (range 45 days to 18 years). Clindamycin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic during hospitalization (67% of cases) and at discharge (66% of cases). The median duration of therapy was 11 days (interquartile range 10-12) and was similar for all 3 types of ABSSSI. The primary endpoint occurred in 67% of cases, including broad Gram-negative therapy in 25% and treatment duration >10 days in 61%. By multivariate logistic regression, admission through an emergency department and management by a medical (vs. surgical) service were independently associated with the primary endpoint. Conclusions: Children hospitalized for ABSSSI are frequently exposed to antibiotics with broad Gram-negative activity or treated longer than 10 days suggesting opportunity to reduce antibiotic use.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 08/2014; 33(8):825-828. DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000000304 · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has spread rapidly throughout the world in the last decade. We sought to demonstrate the impact of the emergence of CA-MRSA in Western Canada on physician visits, incision-and-drainage procedures, and antibiotic prescribing for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). We used the provincial physician billing system to determine the rate of physician visits (per 1,000 population per year) of SSTI and incision-and-drainage procedures. A database capturing all outpatient prescriptions in the province was anonymously linked to associated physician billing codes to quantify prescriptions associated with SSTI. Antibiotic prescriptions (overall and class specific) were expressed as their defined daily dose (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Between 1996 and 2008, the rate of visits for all SSTI increased by 15%, and the majority of visits did not include an incision-and-drainage procedure. The rate of antibiotic prescribing for SSTI increased by 49%. The majority of this increase was attributable to the higher rates of use of clindamycin (627%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (380%), cephalosporins (160%), and amoxicillin-clavulanate (627%). Health care utilization and antibiotic prescribing rates for SSTI, but not incision-and-drainage procedures, have increased in association with the CA-MRSA epidemic. While much of the increase in antibiotic use reflects an appropriate change to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, there is room for education regarding the limitations of cephalosporins and clindamycin, given current susceptibility profiles.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2012; 56(12). DOI:10.1128/AAC.00649-12 · 4.45 Impact Factor