The functional effects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis on the NMDAR-mediated synaptic plasticity were evaluated by using mouse hippocampus slices. Anti-NMDAR antibody detection system was established by immunostaining recombinant NMDAR heteromers expressed in HEK cell culture as well as native NMDARs in cultured hippocampal neurons. Under a complete blind manner for the clinical information, CSF and sera collected from 36 pre-diagnosed patients were tested for anti-NMDAR antibodies. With this test, thirteen patients were diagnosed as anti-NMDAR encephalitis. CSF positive for anti-NMDAR antibodies suppressed induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in mouse hippocampal slices. LTP induction was not suppressed by CSF collected from herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis or non-encephalitis control patients. Antibody absorption with NMDAR-expressing HEK cell culture reversed the suppression of LTP by anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients' CSF, confirming that anti-NMDAR antibodies suppressed LTP. The present experiments firmly support the proposal that the anti-NMDAR encephalitis autoantibody is responsible for cognitive disorders like amnesia accompanying this disease.
"(A) Patient's IgG. The patient was a 33-year-old woman who showed psychosis, involuntary movements, convulsions and hypoventilation, and was proven to have a high titer of an anti-NMDAR antibody (×16,000), using a method previously reported (Zhang et al. 2012). (B) Control human IgG. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune synaptic encephalitis is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against synaptic constituent receptors and manifests as neurological and psychiatric disorders. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is such an autoimmune disorder that predominantly affects young women. It is associated with antibodies against the extracellular region of the NR1 subunit of postsynaptic NMDAR. Each NMDAR functions as a heterotetrameric complex that is composed of four subunits, including NR1 and NR2A, NR2B, or NR2C. Importantly, ovarian teratoma is a typical complication of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in female patients and may contain antigenic neural tissue; however, antigenic sites remain unknown in female patients without ovarian teratoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of NMDARs in the ovum. We detected NR1 and NR2B immunoreactivity in protein fractions extracted from the bovine ovary and ova by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Immunoprecipitates digested with trypsin were analyzed by reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We obtained the following five peptides: SPFGRFK and KNLQDR, which are consistent with partial sequences of human NR1, and GVEDALVSLK, QPTVAGAPK, and NEVMSSK, which correspond to those of NR2A, NR2B and NR2C, respectively. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the bovine ovum was stained with the immunoglobulin G purified from the serum of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Taken together, we propose that the normal ovum expresses NMDARs that have strong affinity for the disease-specific IgG. The presence of NMDARs in ova may help explain why young females without ovarian teratomas are also affected by anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2015; 235(3):223-31. DOI:10.1620/tjem.235.223 · 1.35 Impact Factor
"Studies conducted in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated the pathogenicity of these cell-surface antibodies ; notably, they have been shown to cause a reversible reduction in numbers of neuronal surface NMDA receptors in addition to a reduction in the NMDA-mediated component of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), without causing neuronal death (Hughes et al. 2010). Application of the antibodies to neuronal slices inhibits long-term potentiation (LTP), possibly through direct antagonism at the receptor (Zhang et al. 2012). Importantly, an increase in extracellular glutamate levels has been found in rats following injection of patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (Manto et al. 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune condition caused by immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies directed against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor. Approximately 65% of cases present with psychiatric symptoms, particularly psychosis. It remains to be established whether anti-NMDA receptor antibodies can cause a 'purely' psychotic illness without overt neurological symptoms.
We conducted a systematic literature search to establish what proportion of patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses have antibodies directed against the NMDA receptor. Studies were included if (a) subjects had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum disorder or first-episode psychosis (FEP) using standard criteria, (b) serum was analysed for the presence of anti-NMDA receptor antibodies; and (c) the purpose of the study was to look for the presence of anti-NMDA receptor antibodies in patients with a primary psychiatric diagnosis without clinical signs of encephalitis.
Seven studies were included, comprising 1441 patients, of whom 115 [7.98%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.69-9.50] were anti-NMDA receptor antibody positive. Of these, 21 (1.46%, 95% CI 0.94-2.23) patients were positive for antibodies of the IgG subclass. Prevalence rates were greater in cases than controls only for IgG antibodies; other subclasses are of less certain aetiological relevance. There was significant heterogeneity in terms of patient characteristics and the antibody assay used.
A minority of patients with psychosis are anti-NMDA receptor antibody positive. It remains to be established whether this subset of patients differs from antibody-negative patients in terms of underlying pathology and response to antipsychotic treatment, and whether immunomodulatory treatments are effective in alleviating psychotic symptoms in this group.
Psychological Medicine 12/2013; 44(12):1-13. DOI:10.1017/S003329171300295X · 5.94 Impact Factor
"Case reports for 1, 2, 4, 9, 10 were previously published [14-19].During the initial study with Dr. Dalmau, we came across several patients with positive antibody but without any symptoms of encephalitis (in group C). We therefore extended the study and measured the anti-NMDAR antibody in additional cases by ourselves with a comparative method [20,21]. The plasma and CSF were tested blind to diagnostic status. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Causative role of encephalitis in major psychotic features, dyskinesias (particularly orofacial), seizures, and autonomic and respiratory changes has been recently emphasized. These symptoms often occur in young females with ovarian teratomas and are frequently associated with serum and CSF autoantibodies to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR).
The study included a total of 61 patients from age 15 to 61 and was carried out between January 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2010. The patients were divided into the following three clinical groups for comparison. Group A; Patients with typical clinical characteristics of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Group B; Patients with narcolepsy with severe psychosis. Group C; Patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders.
Ten out of 61 cases were anti-NMDAR antibody positive in typical encephalitis cases (group A: 3 of 5 cases) and cases in a broader range of psychiatric disorders including narcolepsy (group B: 3 of 5 cases) and schizophrenia (group C: 4 of 51 cases).
In addition to 3 typical cases, we found 7 cases with anti-NMDAR antibody associated with various psychotic and sleep symptoms, which lack any noticeable clinical signs of encephalitis (seizures and autonomic symptoms) throughout the course of the disease episodes; this result suggest that further discussion on the nosology and pathophysiology of autoimmune-mediated atypical psychosis and sleep disorders is required.
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