Severe pre-eclampsia is associated with abnormal trace elements concentrations in maternal and fetal blood
ABSTRACT The study was aimed to compare trace elements concentrations in women with and without severe pre-eclampsia (PE).
A prospective case-control study was conducted comparing 43 parturients with severe PE (who received magnesium sulfate [MgSO4]) and 80 healthy parturients and their newborns, matched for gestational age and mode of delivery. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was used for the determination of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and magnesium (Mg) levels in maternal as well as arterial and venous umbilical cord serum.
Zn levels (µg/L) were significantly higher in fetal arterial and venous blood of the PE group (947.3 ± 42.5 vs. 543.1 ± 226, 911.1 ± 220.2 vs. 422.4 ± 145, p < 0.001; respectively). Se levels (µg/L) were significantly lower in maternal and fetal arterial and venous cord blood of the PE group (98.6 ± 24.2, 110.7 ± 19.4, 82 ± 17.8 vs. 111.6 ± 17.6, 82.1 ± 17.4 vs. 107.1 ± 25.7, p < 0.001; respectively). Cu levels (µg/L) were significantly lower in fetal arterial and venous cord blood (581.6 ± 367.4 vs. 949 ± 788.8, p = 0.022, 608.3 ± 418.1 vs. 866.9 ± 812.6, p = 0.001 respectively) but higher in maternal blood (2264.6 ± 751.7 vs. 1048 ± 851.1, p < 0.001). These differences remained significant while controlling for the mode of delivery. Mg levels were significantly higher in the PE group as compared with the control group.
Severe PE is associated with abnormal concentrations of Zn, Cu and Se. Therefore, trace elements may have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of severe PE.
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ABSTRACT: Trace elements occur in the body in very small or 'trace' amounts. Deficiencies of essential trace elements produce multiple and diverse clinical signs and symptoms. These may arise from inadequate dietary intake, decreased bioavailability, iatrogenic factors, certain disease states in which decreased absorption, excessive excretion and/or utilization occurs, and physiological states in which trace element requirements are increased and/or body stores are reduced. This review discusses both the static and functional laboratory tests used for the assessment of chromium, copper, selenium, and zinc status in humans, with emphasis on those tests suitable for community use. Static tests measure the total quantity of the trace elements in various accessible tissues and body fluids such as hair, nails, blood or some of its components, and urine; functional tests measure the activity of trace-element-dependent enzymes, or a physiological or behavioural function dependent on a specific trace element. The advantages and limitations of each test are discussed, together with the effects of non-nutritional factors that may confound the interpretation of the results. Interpretive criteria are also given, where possible.Progress in food & nutrition science 02/1989; 13(2):67-111.
Article: Zinc: An overview[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Zn deficiency in humans is widespread throughout the world. It is more prevalent in areas where the population subsists on cereal proteins. Conditioned Zn deficiency is seen in many disease states. Its deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure and lack of gonadal development in males. Other effects of Zn deficiency include skin changes, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, neurosensory disorders, and cell-mediated immune disorders. Severe Zn deficiency, as seen in acrodermatitis enteropathica (a genetic disorder), is fatal if Zn is not administered to these patients. A clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. Assays of Zn in granulocytes and lymphocytes provide better diagnostic criteria for marginal Zn deficiency than plasma Zn. Approximately 300 enzymes are known to require Zn for their activities. Zn is required for DNA synthesis, cell division, and protein synthesis. Recently, we learned that Zn-finger proteins are involved in genetic expression of various growth factors and steroid receptors. We suspect that several hundred Zn-containing nucleoproteins are probably involved in gene expression of various proteins. Zn deficiency adversely affects lymphocyte proliferation. This may be related to the enzymatic role of Zn in DNA synthesis and cell division. Thymulin, a thymic hormone involved in T-lymphocyte maturation, is known to be Zn dependent and is adversely affected by Zn deficiency. Thus, an adverse effect of Zn deficiency may also be in lymphocyte differentiation and maturity. Zn deficiency is known to decrease interleukin 2 production by helper T lymphocytes, and abnormalities in T-lymphocyte subpopulations have been observed in Zn-deficient humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Nutrition 01/1995; 11(1 Suppl):93-9. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to assess the status of essential trace elements such as copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium and zinc in insulin-dependent diabetic pregnancies at term and to compare the data with a control group. Fetal-maternal ratios of the elements and copper:zinc ratio were also computed in the control and study populations. Samples from maternal vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein of diabetic and control women were collected at the time of spontaneous delivery or cesarean section and activities of trace elements evaluated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn concentrations in maternal venous blood averaged 2,156, 2,020, 13, 102 and 656 microg/l in control women (n=17) while in the diabetic group (n=14), the corresponding values for the trace elements averaged 3,135, 3,675, 15, 85 and 628 microg/l respectively. Values for copper and molybdenum were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the study group compared to control while those of zinc, iron and selenium were not significantly different (p>0.05). Iron and molybdenum values were significantly higher (p<0.05) and that of zinc significantly lower (p<0.05) in umbilical arterial samples of diabetic group compared to controls. In the case of molybdenum, copper the values were significantly higher (p<0.05) in umbilical venous samples of diabetic group compared to that of control. Significant differences in Cu:Zn ratio of maternal venous and umbilical samples and fetal-maternal ratios of some elements were noted between control and study group as well. We speculate that altered status of some essential trace elements and altered antioxidant mineral ratio observed in insulin dependent diabetic patients could have deleterious influences on the health of the mother as well as the fetus and newborn.Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 03/2005; 271(3):212-7. DOI:10.1007/s00404-004-0636-8 · 1.28 Impact Factor