Severe pre-eclampsia is associated with abnormal trace elements concentrations in maternal and fetal blood.
ABSTRACT The study was aimed to compare trace elements concentrations in women with and without severe pre-eclampsia (PE).
A prospective case-control study was conducted comparing 43 parturients with severe PE (who received magnesium sulfate [MgSO4]) and 80 healthy parturients and their newborns, matched for gestational age and mode of delivery. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was used for the determination of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and magnesium (Mg) levels in maternal as well as arterial and venous umbilical cord serum.
Zn levels (µg/L) were significantly higher in fetal arterial and venous blood of the PE group (947.3 ± 42.5 vs. 543.1 ± 226, 911.1 ± 220.2 vs. 422.4 ± 145, p < 0.001; respectively). Se levels (µg/L) were significantly lower in maternal and fetal arterial and venous cord blood of the PE group (98.6 ± 24.2, 110.7 ± 19.4, 82 ± 17.8 vs. 111.6 ± 17.6, 82.1 ± 17.4 vs. 107.1 ± 25.7, p < 0.001; respectively). Cu levels (µg/L) were significantly lower in fetal arterial and venous cord blood (581.6 ± 367.4 vs. 949 ± 788.8, p = 0.022, 608.3 ± 418.1 vs. 866.9 ± 812.6, p = 0.001 respectively) but higher in maternal blood (2264.6 ± 751.7 vs. 1048 ± 851.1, p < 0.001). These differences remained significant while controlling for the mode of delivery. Mg levels were significantly higher in the PE group as compared with the control group.
Severe PE is associated with abnormal concentrations of Zn, Cu and Se. Therefore, trace elements may have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of severe PE.
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ABSTRACT: Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia are common disorders during pregnancy, with the majority of cases developing at or near term. The development of mild hypertension or preeclampsia at or near term is associated with minimal maternal and neonatal morbidities. In contrast, the onset of severe gestational hypertension and/or severe preeclampsia before 35 weeks' gestation is associated with significant maternal and perinatal complications. Women with diagnosed gestational hypertension-preeclampsia require close evaluation of maternal and fetal conditions for the duration of pregnancy, and those with severe disease should be managed in-hospital. The decision between delivery and expectant management depends on fetal gestational age, fetal status, and severity of maternal condition at time of evaluation. Expectant management is possible in a select group of women with severe preeclampsia before 32 weeks' gestation. Steroids are effective in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity when administered to those with severe disease between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation. Magnesium sulfate should be used during labor and for at least 24 hours postpartum to prevent seizures in all women with severe disease. There is an urgent need to conduct randomized trials to determine the efficacy and safety of antihypertensive drugs in women with mild hypertension-preeclampsia. There is also a need to conduct a randomized trial to determine the benefits and risks of magnesium sulfate during labor and postpartum in women with mild preeclampsia.Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/2003; 102(1):181-92. DOI:10.1016/S0029-7844(03)00475-7 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trace elements occur in the body in very small or 'trace' amounts. Deficiencies of essential trace elements produce multiple and diverse clinical signs and symptoms. These may arise from inadequate dietary intake, decreased bioavailability, iatrogenic factors, certain disease states in which decreased absorption, excessive excretion and/or utilization occurs, and physiological states in which trace element requirements are increased and/or body stores are reduced. This review discusses both the static and functional laboratory tests used for the assessment of chromium, copper, selenium, and zinc status in humans, with emphasis on those tests suitable for community use. Static tests measure the total quantity of the trace elements in various accessible tissues and body fluids such as hair, nails, blood or some of its components, and urine; functional tests measure the activity of trace-element-dependent enzymes, or a physiological or behavioural function dependent on a specific trace element. The advantages and limitations of each test are discussed, together with the effects of non-nutritional factors that may confound the interpretation of the results. Interpretive criteria are also given, where possible.Progress in food & nutrition science 02/1989; 13(2):67-111.
Article: Zinc: an overview.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Zn deficiency in humans is widespread throughout the world. It is more prevalent in areas where the population subsists on cereal proteins. Conditioned Zn deficiency is seen in many disease states. Its deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure and lack of gonadal development in males. Other effects of Zn deficiency include skin changes, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, neurosensory disorders, and cell-mediated immune disorders. Severe Zn deficiency, as seen in acrodermatitis enteropathica (a genetic disorder), is fatal if Zn is not administered to these patients. A clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. Assays of Zn in granulocytes and lymphocytes provide better diagnostic criteria for marginal Zn deficiency than plasma Zn. Approximately 300 enzymes are known to require Zn for their activities. Zn is required for DNA synthesis, cell division, and protein synthesis. Recently, we learned that Zn-finger proteins are involved in genetic expression of various growth factors and steroid receptors. We suspect that several hundred Zn-containing nucleoproteins are probably involved in gene expression of various proteins. Zn deficiency adversely affects lymphocyte proliferation. This may be related to the enzymatic role of Zn in DNA synthesis and cell division. Thymulin, a thymic hormone involved in T-lymphocyte maturation, is known to be Zn dependent and is adversely affected by Zn deficiency. Thus, an adverse effect of Zn deficiency may also be in lymphocyte differentiation and maturity. Zn deficiency is known to decrease interleukin 2 production by helper T lymphocytes, and abnormalities in T-lymphocyte subpopulations have been observed in Zn-deficient humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Nutrition 11(1 Suppl):93-9. · 3.05 Impact Factor