Human cardiac progenitor cell grafts as unrestricted source of supernumerary cardiac cells in healthy murine hearts.
ABSTRACT Human heart harbors a population of resident progenitor cells that can be isolated by stem cell antigen-1 antibody and expanded in culture. These cells can differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and contribute to cardiac regeneration in vivo. However, when directly injected as single cell suspension, less than 1%-5% survive and differentiate. Among the major causes of this failure are the distressing protocols used to culture in vitro and implant progenitor cells into damaged hearts. Human cardiac progenitors obtained from the auricles of patients were cultured as scaffoldless engineered tissues fabricated using temperature-responsive surfaces. In the engineered tissue, progenitor cells established proper three-dimensional intercellular relationships and were embedded in self-produced extracellular matrix preserving their phenotype and multipotency in the absence of significant apoptosis. After engineered tissues were leant on visceral pericardium, a number of cells migrated into the murine myocardium and in the vascular walls, where they integrated in the respective textures. The study demonstrates the suitability of such an approach to deliver stem cells to the myocardium. Interestingly, the successful delivery of cells in murine healthy hearts suggests that myocardium displays a continued cell cupidity that is strictly regulated by the limited release of progenitor cells by the adopted source. When an unregulated cell source is added to the system, cells are delivered to the myocardium. The exploitation of this novel concept may pave the way to the setup of new protocols in cardiac cell therapy.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Carmine Nicoletti, May 22, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) represent the leading candidate cell in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These cells can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro and are capable of providing significant functional benefits after implantation in the damaged muscle tissues. Despite their plasticity, the participation of BM-MSCs to new muscle fiber formation is controversial; in fact, emerging evidence indicates that their therapeutic effects occur without signs of long-term tissue engraftment and involve the paracrine secretion of cytokines and growth factors with multiple effects on the injured tissue, including modulation of inflammation and immune reaction, positive extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, angiogenesis and protection from apoptosis. Recently, a new role for BM-MSCs in the stimulation of muscle progenitor cells proliferation has been demonstrated, suggesting the potential ability of these cells to influence the fate of local stem cells and augment the endogenous mechanisms of repair/regeneration in the damaged tissues.12/2012; 1(4):832-50. DOI:10.3390/cells1040832
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ABSTRACT: The vascularization of tissue engineered products represents a key issue in regenerative medicine which needs to be addressed before the translation of these protocols to the bedside can be foreseen. Here we propose a multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized three-dimensional (3D) cardiac bio-substitutes using dynamic cell cultures and highly porous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds. The strategy adopted exploits the peculiar differentiation potential of two distinct subsets of adult stem cells to obtain human vascularized 3D cardiac tissues. In the first step of the procedure, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are seeded onto gelatin scaffolds to provide interconnected vessel-like structures, while human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) are stimulated in vitro to obtain their commitment toward the cardiac phenotype. The use of a modular bioreactor allows the perfusion of the whole scaffold, providing superior performance in terms of cardiac tissue maturation and cell survival. Both the cell culture on natural-derived polymers and the continuous medium perfusion of the scaffold led to the formation of a densely packaged proto-tissue composed of vascular-like and cardiac-like cells, which might complete maturation process and interconnect with native tissue upon in vivo implantation. In conclusion, the data obtained through the approach here proposed highlight the importance to provide stem cells with complementary signals in vitro able to resemble the complexity of cardiac microenvironment.Frontiers in Physiology 06/2014; 5:210. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00210
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ABSTRACT: Background The heart is unable to regenerate its tissues after severe injuries. Stem cell therapy appears to be one of the most promising approaches, though preclinical results are hitherto contradictory and clinical trials scanty and/or limited to phase-I. The limited knowledge about stem cell early homing in infarcted cardiac tissues can concur to this scenario. Methods the stem cell migration was assessed in in-vitro and ex-vivo models of heart ischemia, employing a rat dental pulp stem cell line (MUR-1) that shares the same ontogenic progenitors with portions of the heart, expresses markers typical of cardiac/vascular-like progenitors and is able to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in-vitro. Results Here, we demonstrated that the MUR-1 can reach the injured cells/tissue and make contacts with the damaged cardiomyocytes, likely through connexin 43, N-cadherin and von Willebrand Factor mediated cell-cell interactions, both in in-vitro and ex-vivo models. Furthermore, we found that SDF-1, FGF-2 and HGF, but not VEGF are involved as chemotactic factors in MUR-1 migration, notifying a similarity with neural crest cell behavior during the organogenesis of both the splancnocranium and the heart. Conclusions herein we found a similarity between what happens during the heart organogenesis and the early migration and homing of MUR-1 cells in ischemic models. General significance The comprehension of molecular aspects underlying the early phases of stem cell migration and interaction with damaged organ contributes to the future achievement of the coveted stem cell-mediated organ regeneration and function preservation in-vivo.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.03.005 · 3.83 Impact Factor