Wnt Inhibitor Screen Reveals Iron Dependence of beta-Catenin Signaling in Cancers
ABSTRACT Excessive signaling from the Wnt pathway is associated with numerous human cancers. Using a high throughput screen designed to detect inhibitors of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, we identified a series of acyl hydrazones that act downstream of the β-catenin destruction complex to inhibit both Wnt-induced and cancer-associated constitutive Wnt signaling via destabilization of β-catenin. We found that these acyl hydrazones bind iron in vitro and in intact cells and that chelating activity is required to abrogate Wnt signaling and block the growth of colorectal cancer cell lines with constitutive Wnt signaling. In addition, we found that multiple iron chelators, desferrioxamine, deferasirox, and ciclopirox olamine similarly blocked Wnt signaling and cell growth. Moreover, in patients with AML administered ciclopirox olamine, we observed decreased expression of the Wnt target gene AXIN2 in leukemic cells. The novel class of acyl hydrazones would thus be prime candidates for further development as chemotherapeutic agents. Taken together, our results reveal a critical requirement for iron in Wnt signaling and they show that iron chelation serves as an effective mechanism to inhibit Wnt signaling in humans.
SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.comLeukemia Research 09/2014; 38(9). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2014.06.021 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Excess iron is tightly associated with tumorigenesis in multiple human cancer types through a variety of mechanisms including catalyzing the formation of mutagenic hydroxyl radicals, regulating DNA replication, repair and cell cycle progression, affecting signal transduction in cancer cells, and acting as an essential nutrient for proliferating tumor cells. Thus, multiple therapeutic strategies based on iron deprivation have been developed in cancer therapy. During the past few years, our understanding of genetic association and molecular mechanisms between iron and tumorigenesis has expanded enormously. In this review, we briefly summarize iron homeostasis in mammals, and discuss recent progresses in understanding the aberrant iron metabolism in numerous cancer types, with a focus on studies revealing altered signal transduction in cancer cells.Protein & Cell 12/2014; 6(2). DOI:10.1007/s13238-014-0119-z · 3.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two cytotoxic iron(II) complexes [Fe(L)(CH3CN)n](ClO4)2 (L=qpy for Fe-1 a, Py5-OH for Fe-2 a) were synthesized. Both complexes are stable against spontaneous demetalation and oxidation in buffer solutions. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed the higher stability of Fe-2 a (+0.82 V vs Fc) against FeII to FeIII oxidation than Fe-1 a (+0.57 V vs Fc). These two complexes display potent cytotoxicity at micromolar level against a panel of cancer cell lines (Fe-1 a=0.8–3.1 μM; Fe-2 a=0.6–3.4 μM), and induce apoptosis that involves caspase activation. Transcriptomic and Connectivity Map analyses revealed that the changes of gene expression induced by Fe-1 a and Fe-2 a are similar to that induced by ciclopirox, an antifungal compound whose mode of action involves formation of intracellular cytotoxic iron chelates. Both Fe-1 a and Fe-2 a caused cellular nuclear DNA damage, as revealed by Comet assay and H2 AX immunofluorescence experiments. The cytotoxicity is associated with production of reactive oxygen species (for Fe-1 a), cell cycle regulation, and stress kinase pathways. The relative contributions of these to the overall cytotoxic mechanism is significantly affected by the structure of penta-N-donor ligand.Chemistry - A European Journal 12/2014; 21(7). DOI:10.1002/chem.201404749 · 5.93 Impact Factor