The effect of the Mediterranean diet on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized trial
ABSTRACT There are no human studies assessing the effect of nutritional interventions on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the role of a nutritional intervention based on a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on plasma BDNF levels.
PREvención con Dieta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) is a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. For this analysis, 243 participants from the Navarra centre were randomly selected. Participants were assigned to one of three dietary interventions: control (low-fat) diet, MeDiet supplemented with virgin olive oil (MeDiet+VOO), or MeDiet supplemented with nuts (MeDiet+Nuts). Plasma BDNF levels were measured after 3 years of intervention. Multivariate-adjusted means of BDNF for each intervention were compared using generalized linear models. Logistic regression models were fit to assess the association between the dietary intervention and the likelihood to have low plasma BDNF values (<13 µg/ml, 10th percentile). Analyses were repeated after stratifying the sample according to baseline prevalence of different diseases.
Higher but non-significant plasma BDNF levels were observed for participants assigned to both MeDiets. Participants assigned to MeDiet+Nuts showed a significant lower risk (odds ratios (OR)=0.22; 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.05-0.90) of low plasma BDNF values (<13 µg/ml) as compared to the control group. Among participants with prevalent depression at baseline, significantly higher BDNF levels were found for those assigned to the MeDiet+Nuts.
Adherence to a MeDiet was associated to an improvement in plasma BDNF concentrations in individuals with depression.
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ABSTRACT: As olive oil is the main source of calories in the Mediterranean diet, a great deal of research has been devoted to characterizing its role in atherosclerosis. Virgin olive oil is an oily matrix that contains hydrocarbons, mainly squalene; triterpenes such as uvaol, erythrodiol, oleanolic, and maslinic acid; phytosterols; and a wide range of phenolic compounds comprising simple phenols, flavonoids, secoiridoids, and lignans. In this review, we analyze the studies dealing with atherosclerosis and olive oil in several species. A protective role of virgin olive oil against atherosclerosis has been shown in ApoE-deficient mice and hamsters. In the former animal, sex, dose, and dietary cholesterol are modulators of the outcome. Contradictory findings have been reported for rabbits, a circumstance that could be due to the profusion of experimental designs, differing in terms of doses and animal strains, as well as sources of olive oils. This role has yet to be fully validated in humans. Minor components of olive oil have been shown to be involved in atherosclerosis protection. Nevertheless, evidence of the potential of isolated compounds or the right combination of them to achieve the antiatherosclerotic effect of virgin olive oil is inconclusive and will undoubtedly require further experimental support.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 07/2012; 56(7):1043-57. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201100668 · 4.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Research on the role of diet in the prevention of depression is scarce. Some evidence suggests that depression shares common mechanisms with cardiovascular disease. Discussion Before considering the role of diet in the prevention of depression, several points need to be considered. First, in general, evidence has been found for the effects of isolated nutrients or foods, and not for dietary patterns. Second, most previous studies have a cross-sectional design. Third, information is generally collected though questionnaires, increasing the risk of misclassification bias. Fourth, adequate control of confounding factors in observational studies is mandatory. Summary Only a few cohort studies have analyzed the relationship between overall dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, and primary prevention of depression. They have found similar results to those obtained for the role of this dietary pattern in cardiovascular disease. To confirm the findings obtained in these initial cohort studies, we need further observational longitudinal studies with improved methodology, as well as large randomized primary prevention trials, with interventions based on changes in the overall food pattern, that include participants at high risk of mental disorders.BMC Medicine 01/2013; 11(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-11-3 · 7.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research on major depression has confirmed that it is caused by an array of biopsychosocial and lifestyle factors. Diet, exercise and sleep are three such influences that play a significant mediating role in the development, progression and treatment of this condition. This review summarises animal- and human-based studies on the relationship between these three lifestyle factors and major depressive disorder, and their influence on dysregulated pathways associated with depression: namely neurotransmitter processes, immuno-inflammatory pathways, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems, neuroprogression, and mitochondrial disturbances. Increased attention in future clinical studies on the influence of diet, sleep and exercise on major depressive disorder and investigations of their effect on physiological processes will help to expand our understanding and treatment of major depressive disorder. Mental health interventions, taking into account the bidirectional relationship between these lifestyle factors and major depression are also likely to enhance the efficacy of interventions associated with this disorder.Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2013; 148(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.01.014 · 3.71 Impact Factor