Use of enteral nutrition for the control of intestinal inflammation in pediatric Crohn disease.

Division of Gastroenterology, Janeway Children's Health Center, Memorial University, St John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.87). 02/2012; 54(2):298-305. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e318235b397
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Exclusive enteral nutrition is an effective yet often underused therapy for the induction of remission in pediatric Crohn disease. The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition formed the Enteral Nutrition Working Group to review the use of enteral nutrition therapy in pediatric Crohn disease. The group was composed of 5 pediatric gastroenterologists and 1 pediatric nutritionist, all with an interest and/or expertise in exclusive enteral nutrition. Specific attention was placed upon review of the evidence for efficacy of therapy, assessment of the variations in care, identification of barriers to its widespread use, and compilation of the necessary components for a successful program. The present guideline is intended to aid physicians in developing an enteral nutrition therapy program and potentially promote its use.

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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 12/2013; 2013:482108. DOI:10.1155/2013/482108 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a first-line treatment in children with active Crohn's disease (CD) but is seldom used in adults with active disease. The mode of action of EEN in suppressing mucosal inflammation is not fully understood, but modulation of intestinal microflora activity is one possible explanation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6-week EEN in children with active CD, with special reference to intestinal microflora function. Materials and methods. Fecal samples from 18 children (11 boys, 7 girls; median age 13.5 years) with active CD (13 children with small bowel/colonic and 5 with perianal disease) were analyzed for short chain fatty acid (SCFA) pattern as marker of gut microflora function. The children were studied before and after EEN treatment. Results from 12 healthy teenagers were used for comparison. Results. Eleven (79%) of the children with small bowel/colonic CD responded clinically positively to EEN treatment showing decreased levels of pro-inflammatory acetic acid as well as increased concentrations of anti-inflammatory butyric acids and also of valeric acids, similar to the levels in healthy age-matched children. In children with active perianal CD, however, EEN had no positive effect on clinical status or inflammatory parameters. Conclusions. The authors present new data supporting the hypothesis that the well-documented anti-inflammatory effect of EEN in children with active small bowel/colonic CD is brought about by modulation of gut microflora activity, resulting in an anti-inflammatory SCFA pattern. By contrast, none of the children with perianal disease showed clinical or biochemical improvement after EEN treatment.
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