Factors Predictive of Recurrence and Mortality after Surgical Repair of Enterocutaneous Fistula
ABSTRACT Many enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF) require operative treatment. Despite recent advances, rates of recurrence have not changed substantially. This study aims to determine factors associated with recurrence and mortality in patients submitted to surgical repair of ECF. Consecutive patients submitted to surgical repair of ECF during a 5-year period were studied. Several patient, disease, and operative variables were assessed as factors related to recurrence and mortality through univariate and multivariate analysis. There were 35 male and 36 female patients. Median age was 52 years (range, 17-81). ECF recurred in 22 patients (31%), 18 of them (82%) eventually closed with medical and/or surgical treatment. Univariate analyses disclosed noncolonic ECF origin (p = 0.04), high output (p = 0.001), and nonresective surgical options (p = 0.02) as risk factors for recurrence; the latter two remained significant after multivariate analyses. A total of 14 patients died (20%). Univariate analyses revealed risk factors for mortality at diagnosis or referral including malnutrition (p = 0.03), sepsis (p = 0.004), fluid and electrolyte imbalance (p = 0.001), and serum albumin <3 g/dl (p = 0.02). Other significant variables were interval from last abdominal operation to ECF operative treatment ≤20 weeks (p = 0.03), preoperative serum albumin <3 g/dl (p = 0.001), and age ≥55 years (p = 0.03); the latter two remained significant after multivariate analyses. Interestingly, recurrence after surgical treatment was not associated with mortality (p = 0.75). Among several studied variables, recurrence was only independently associated with high output and type of surgical treatment (operations not involving resection of ECF). Interestingly, once ECF recurred its management was as successful as non-recurrent fistulas in our series. Mortality was associated to previously-reported bad prognostic factors at diagnosis or referral.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To analyze postoperative outcomes, morbidity, and mortality following enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) takedown. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Retrospective review of the complete medical records of patients who presented to a single tertiary care referral center from December 24, 1987, to June 18, 2010, and subsequently underwent definitive surgical treatment for ECF originating from the stomach, small bowel, colon, or rectum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Postoperative fistula recurrence and mortality. RESULTS A total of 153 patients received operative intervention for ECF. Most ECFs were referred to us from outside institutions (75.2%), high output (52.3%), originating from the small bowel (88.2%), and iatrogenic in cause (66.7%). Successful ECF closure was ultimately achieved in 128 patients (83.7%). Six patients (3.9%) died within 30 days of surgery, and overall 1-year mortality was 15.0%. Postoperative complications occurred in 134 patients, for an overall morbidity rate of 87.6%. Significant risk factors for fistula recurrence were numerous, but postoperative ventilation for longer than 48 hours, organ space surgical site infection, and blood transfusion within 72 hours of surgery carried the most considerable impact (relative risks, 4.87, 4.07, and 3.91, respectively; P < .05). Risk of 1-year mortality was also associated with multiple risk factors, the most substantial of which were postoperative pulmonary and infectious complications. Closure of abdominal fascia was protective against both recurrent ECF and mortality (relative risks, 0.47 and 0.38, respectively; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS Understanding risk factors both associated with and protective against ECF recurrence and postoperative morbidity and mortality is imperative for appropriate ECF management. Closure of abdominal fascia is of utmost importance, and preventing postoperative complications must be prioritized to optimize patient outcomes.Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 10/2012; 148(2):1-9. DOI:10.1001/2013.jamasurg.153 · 4.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The complement depletion commonly occurred during sepsis, but it was often underestimated compared with severe infection or coagulation dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate the alteration of complement system in patients with severe abdominal sepsis and evaluate the role of complement depletion in prognosis of such patients. The relationship between complement depletion and infection or coagulopathy was also explored. Forty-five patients with severe abdominal sepsis were prospectively conducted among individuals referral to SICU. Currently recommended treatments, such as early goal-directed resuscitation, source control and antibiotics therapy, were performed. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) and sepsis related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were employed to evaluate severity. Plasma levels of C3, C4, CRP, PCT, D-dimer and other parameters were detected within eight times of observation. The 28-day mortality, length of stay, and postoperative complications were compared between complement depletion and non-complement depletion groups. Within the study period, eight (17.8%) patients died, five of them suffering from complement depletion. The overall incidence of complement depletion was 64.4%. At admission, mean complement C3 and C4 levels were 0.70 and 0.13 mg/mL, respectively. Using ROC analysis for mortality prediction, the area under the curve of C3 was 0.926 (95% CI, 0.845-0.998, P<0.001), with optimal cutpoint value of 0.578 mg/mL. Complement C3 depletion was shown to be no correlation to severity scores, however, strongly correlated with elevated D-dimer, PCT concentrations and increased postoperative complications. Complement C3 depletion was found to be connected to poor prognosis in severe abdominal sepsis. This depletion seems to be associated with coagulopathy and aggravated infection during sepsis, which should be paid close attention in critical care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01568853.PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e47095. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047095 · 3.23 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite advances in nutritional supplementation, sepsis management, percutaneous drainage and surgical technique, enterocutaneous fistulae remain a considerable source of morbidity and mortality. Use of adjunctive modalities including negative pressure wound therapy and fibrin glue have been shown to improve the rapidity of fistula closure; however, the overall rate of closure remains poor. The challenge of managing chronic, high-output proximal enterocutaneous fistulae can be successfully achieved with appropriate medical management and intra-abdominal placement of pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flaps. We report two cases of recalcitrant high output enterocutaneous fistulae that were treated successfully with pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps. Indications for pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps include persistent patency despite a reasonable trial of non-operative intervention, failure of traditional operative interventions (serosal patch, Graham patch), and persistent electrolyte and nutritional abnormalities in the setting of a high-output fistula.Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 01/2013; 66(8). DOI:10.1016/j.bjps.2012.12.008 · 1.47 Impact Factor