Regulation of ROCKII membrane localization through its C-terminus.
ABSTRACT RhoA activated kinases (ROCKs) are potent effectors of RhoA signaling for regulation of the cytoskeleton. ROCKs have been shown to be localized to several different subcellular locations, suggesting that its localization is context specific and regulated. However, the signaling mechanisms that control ROCK localization have not been clearly described. In this study we measured ROCKII localization following stimulation with the chemokine CXCL12 or adhesion to collagen 1. Strikingly, each of these extracellular signals targeted ROCKII to membrane protrusions. We further determined that both RhoA and PI3-kinase signaling are required for these stimuli to induce efficient membrane localization. Furthermore, we used a mutational approach to show that two separate domains predicted to respond to these localization signals, the Rho Binding Domain (RBD) and the Pleckstrin Homology domain (PH). Unexpectedly, we found that these two domains work synergistically to lead to membrane localization. This suggests a novel mechanism for controlling ROCKII localization at the membrane, in which the ROCKII C-terminus acts as a coincidence detector for spatial regulatory signals. In other words, efficient membrane targeting requires the ROCKII RBD to receive the RhoA signal and the PH domain to receive the phospholipid signal.
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ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of carriers trafficking from the Golgi complex to the cell surface are still ill-defined; nevertheless, the involvement of a lipid-based machinery is well established. This includes phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), the precursor for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). In yeast, PtdIns(4)P exerts a direct role, however, its mechanism of action and its targets in mammalian cells remain uncharacterized. We have identified two effectors of PtdIns(4)P, the four-phosphate-adaptor protein 1 and 2 (FAPP1 and FAPP2). Both proteins localize to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) on nascent carriers, and interact with PtdIns(4)P and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) through their plekstrin homology (PH) domain. Displacement or knockdown of FAPPs inhibits cargo transfer to the plasma membrane. Moreover, overexpression of FAPP-PH impairs carrier fission. Therefore, FAPPs are essential components of a PtdIns(4)P- and ARF-regulated machinery that controls generation of constitutive post-Golgi carriers.Nature Cell Biology 04/2004; 6(5):393-404. · 19.49 Impact Factor