Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation rescues native folding in loss of function protein misfolding diseases
ABSTRACT Lysosomal storage disorders are often caused by mutations that destabilize native folding and impair trafficking of secretory proteins. We demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) prevents native folding of mutated lysosomal enzymes in patient-derived fibroblasts from two clinically distinct lysosomal storage disorders, namely Gaucher and Tay-Sachs disease. Prolonging ER retention via ERAD inhibition enhanced folding, trafficking, and activity of these unstable enzyme variants. Furthermore, combining ERAD inhibition with enhancement of the cellular folding capacity via proteostasis modulation resulted in synergistic rescue of mutated enzymes. ERAD inhibition was achieved by cell treatment with small molecules that interfere with recognition (kifunensine) or retrotranslocation (eeyarestatin I) of misfolded substrates. These different mechanisms of ERAD inhibition were shown to enhance ER retention of mutated proteins but were associated with dramatically different levels of ER stress, unfolded protein response activation, and unfolded protein response-induced apoptosis.
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- "Interestingly, inhibition of ERAD at the level of the cytosolic ERAD factor p97/VCP did lead to UPR activation and ER stress mediated apoptosis. This indicates that not inhibition of ERAD per se, but inhibition at specific steps can provide protection from ER stress (Wang et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Disturbances in proteostasis are observed in many neurodegenerative diseases. This leads to activation of protein quality control to restore proteostasis, with a key role for the removal of aberrant proteins by proteolysis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a protein quality control mechanism of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is activated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Recently we showed that the major proteolytic pathway during UPR activation is via the autophagy/lysosomal system. Here we investigate UPR induction if the other major proteolytic pathway of the ER -ER associated degradation (ERAD)-is inhibited. Surprisingly, impairment of ERAD results in decreased UPR activation and protects against ER stress toxicity. Autophagy induction is not affected under these conditions, however, a striking relocalization of the lysosomes is observed. Our data suggest that a protective UPR-modulating mechanism is activated if ERAD is inhibited, which involves lysosomes. Our data provide insight in the cross-talk between proteolytic pathways involved in ER proteostasis. This has implications for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease where disturbed ER proteostasis and proteolytic impairment are early phenomena in the pathology.Moleculer Cells 03/2013; 35(4). DOI:10.1007/s10059-013-2286-9 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stalled biogenesis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) complex results in degradation of subunits containing redox cofactors. The conserved Oma1 metalloproteinase mediates facile Cox1 degradation in cells lacking the Coa2 assembly factor, but not in a series of other mutants stalled in CcO maturation. Oma1 is activated in coa2Δ cells, but the selective Cox1 degradation does not arise merely from its activation. Oma1 is also active in cells with dysfunctional mitochondria and cox11Δ cells impaired in CcO maturation, but this activation does not result in Oma1-mediated Cox1 degradation. The facile and selective degradation of Cox1 in coa2Δ cells, relative to other CcO assembly mutants, is likely due to impaired hemylation and subsequent misfolding of the subunit. Specific Cox1 proteolysis in coa2Δ cells arises from a combination of Oma1 activation and a susceptible conformation of Cox1.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2012; 287(10):7289-300. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.313148 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may be both a trigger and consequence of chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is often associated with diseases that arise because of primary misfolding mutations and ER stress. Similarly, ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a feature of many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we describe how protein misfolding and the UPR trigger inflammation, how environmental ER stressors affect antigen presenting cells and immune effector cells, and present evidence that inflammatory factors exacerbate protein misfolding and ER stress. Examples from both animal models of disease and human diseases are used to illustrate the complex interactions between ER stress and inflammation, and opportunities for therapeutic targeting are discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research with respect to the interaction of ER stress and inflammation.Immunology and Cell Biology 01/2012; 90(3):260-70. DOI:10.1038/icb.2011.112 · 4.21 Impact Factor