Functional characterization and targeted correction of ATM mutations identified in Japanese patients with ataxia-telangiectasia.
ABSTRACT A recent challenge for investigators studying the progressive neurological disease ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is to identify mutations whose effects might be alleviated by mutation-targeted therapies. We studied ATM mutations in eight families of Japanese A-T patients (JPAT) and were able to identify all 16 mutations. The probands were compound heterozygotes in seven families, and one (JPAT2) was homozygous for a frameshift mutation. All mutations--four frameshift, two nonsense, four large genomic deletions, and six affecting splicing--were novel except for c.748C>T found in family JPAT6 and c.2639-384A>G found in family JPAT11/12. Using an established lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) of patient JPAT11, ATM protein was restored to levels approaching wild type by exposure to an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide designed to correct a pseudoexon splicing mutation. In addition, in an LCL from patient JPAT8/9, a heterozygous carrier of a nonsense mutation, ATM levels could also be partially restored by exposure to readthrough compounds (RTCs): an aminoglycoside, G418, and a novel small molecule identified in our laboratory, RTC13. Taken together, our results suggest that screening and functional characterization of the various sorts of mutations affecting the ATM gene can lead to better identification of A-T patients who are most likely to benefit from rapidly developing mutation-targeted therapeutic technologies.
Article: Regulation of kainate receptor subunit mRNA by stress and corticosteroids in the rat hippocampus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Kainate receptors are a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors that have a role in the modulation of glutamate release and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal formation. Previous studies have implicated corticosteroids in the regulation of these receptors and recent clinical work has shown that polymorphisms in kainate receptor subunit genes are associated with susceptibility to major depression and response to anti-depressant treatment. In the present study we sought to examine the effects of chronic stress and corticosteroid treatments upon the expression of the mRNA of kainate receptor subunits GluR5-7 and KA1-2. Our results show that, after 7 days, adrenalectomy results in increased expression of hippocampal KA1, GluR6 and GluR7 mRNAs, an effect which is reversed by treatment with corticosterone in the case of KA1 and GluR7 and by aldosterone treatment in the case of GluR6. 21 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) elevated the expression of the KA1 subunit, but had no effect on the expression of the other subunits. Similarly, 21 days of treatment with a moderate dose of corticosterone also increased KA1 mRNA in the dentate gyrus, whereas a high corticosterone dose has no effect. Our results suggest an interaction between hippocampal kainate receptor composition and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and show a selective chronic stress induced modulation of the KA1 subunit in the dentate gyrus and CA3 that has implications for stress-induced adaptive structural plasticity.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(1):e4328. · 4.09 Impact Factor