Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, and Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery (Impact Factor: 1.92). 10/2011; 137(10):1005-10. DOI: 10.1001/archoto.2011.170
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine radiographic findings on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) predictive of acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis (AFIFS) in an immunocompromised patient population.
Retrospective case-control study.
Tertiary referral hospital.
Cases were 17 immunocompromised patients with confirmed AFIFS after surgical debridement or biopsy. Controls were 6 immunocompromised patients histopathologically negative for AFIFS after surgical debridement or biopsy.
Computed tomographic and MRI scans were independently reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists to identify imaging characteristics predictive of AFIFS. Operative reports and histopathologic, microbiologic, and survival data were reviewed.
No significant differences with regard to baseline characteristics between the 2 groups were identified. There was moderate or substantial agreement (κ = 0.40-0.77) between the 2 radiologists for all imaging parameters except MRI loss of contrast enhancement (κ = 0.16). Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than CT for the diagnosis of AFIFS (sensitivity 85% and 86% for both reviewers compared with 57% and 69%). Extrasinus invasion with MRI was the most sensitive individual parameter (87% and 100%). Magnetic resonance imaging and CT had similar specificities, and perisinus invasion was the most specific individual parameter (83% and 83% for MRI compared with 81% and 83% for CT). The positive predictive values were high for both imaging modalities (93% and 94% for MRI compared with 89% and 93% for CT). The negative predictive values were lower for both modalities and varied more between reviewers (71% and 100% for MRI compared with 45% and 67% for CT).
Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for detecting early changes of AFIFS than CT. Both imaging modalities have similar specificities. Perisinus invasion with MRI was the most sensitive and specific single parameter evaluated.

  • Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 10/2014; 113(4):347-85. DOI:10.1016/j.anai.2014.07.025 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ObjectiveThis study was conducted to present the clinical outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus and to analyze clinical factors influencing patient survival.MethodsA retrospective review of 12 cases of invasive fungal sphenoiditis was conducted.ResultsCases were divided into acute fulminant invasive fungal spheonoidits (n=4) and chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis (n=8). The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (n=9). The most common presenting symptoms and signs included visual disturbance (100%). Intracranial extension was observed in 8 patients. Endoscopic debridement and intravenous antifungals were given to all patients. Fatal aneurysmal rupture of the internal carotid artery occurred suddenly in two patients. The mortality rate was 100% for patients with acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis and 25% for patients with chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis. In survival analysis, intracranial extension was evaluated as a statistically significant factor (P=0.027).ConclusionThe survival rate of chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis was 75%. However, the prognosis of acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis was extremely poor despite the application of aggressive treatment, thus, a high index of suspicion should be required and new diagnostic markers need to be developed for early diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus.
    Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology 09/2014; 7(3):181-7. DOI:10.3342/ceo.2014.7.3.181 · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) and offer recommendations for determining surgical extent based on loss of contrast enhancement (LoCE), which reveals tissue ischemia from fungal invasion. Methods Preoperative and postoperative Gd-enhanced MRI was evaluated in 21 patients with confirmed AIFRS who underwent wide debridement and antifungal therapy. Patients were subdivided by AIFRS-specific survival. LoCE and contrast enhancement (CE) of intrasinonasal and extrasinonasal sites in preoperative and postoperative MRI were compared between the two groups. Results All patients had preoperative intrasinonasal LoCE and CE lesions, which did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Bone destruction on CT was detected in 8 of 16 survivors (50%) and 4 of 5 non-survivors (80%). Intrasinonasal LoCE lesions were completely removed by surgery in all cases. Postoperative extrasinonasal LoCE lesions were found in all non-survivors but no survivors (p < 0.001). However, postoperative intrasinonasal and extrasinonasal CE lesions were detected in both survivors and non-survivors (p = 0.119 and p = 0.111, respectively). In addition, remission of hematologic diseases at the time of diagnosis of AIFRS and blood sugar control in diabetic patients were significantly associated with AIFRS-specific survival (p = 0.028 and p = 0.023, respectively). Conclusions LoCE lesions, which have to be surgically removed, should be screened using Gd-enhanced MRI for an earlier diagnosis of AIFRS, determination of surgical extent, and management of follow-up. Remnant LoCE lesions after surgery, active hematologic diseases, and poorly controlled blood sugar adversely affect the AIFRS-survival.
    Journal of Infection 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2014.07.027 · 4.02 Impact Factor