Challenges and opportunities for toxicology in Mexico.

Toxicology mechanisms and methods (Impact Factor: 1.37). 11/2011; 21(9):635-6. DOI: 10.3109/15376516.2011.615978
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphorous (OP) and carbamic pesticides are used in large quantities on tobacco plantations in Nayarit State, Mexico, where up to 3000 children and their families work. OP and carbamic pesticides are easily inhaled or absorbed through the skin and children may be particularly vulnerable to pesticides because of their smaller body mass, their height and more regular hand-mouth contact. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pesticide exposure on acetylcholinesterase levels of very young migrant Mexican tobacco workers and younger siblings. Blood samples were collected from 160 children aged 0-14 years during harvest (exposure) and from 62 children in their home communities 6-9 months after harvest (baseline). Samples were tested for cholinesterase corrected for haemoglobin and ambient temperature. Fifteen per cent of children had depression scores ranging from -40% to 190% of their baseline levels. Thirty-three per cent of children had depression scores of at least 15% and 86% of children were anaemic. These results suggest that very young children are exposed to potentially harmful and toxic amounts of pesticides while working. Further research is needed to assess the actual acute and chronic health impacts of such exposures.
    Child Care Health and Development 06/2007; 33(3):246-8. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 500 species of Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) are found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several of those Ardisia species have been used as ornamental plants, food and medicines. Due to taxonomic confusions, correct identification and acquisition of plant materials remain difficult for some species. Although species of Ardisia are a rich source of novel and biologically potent phytochemical compounds, such as bergenin and ardisin, the utilization of Ardisia species or their phytochemical constituents have not been fully explored, resulting in underexploitation of their uses. The present article reviews the usage and biological activities of Ardisia compounds, as well as recent progress regarding the use of this genus in clinical research. The information presented here also illustrates the potential of the genus as a source of therapeutic agents.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 02/2005; 96(3):347-54. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1 We compared the prevalence of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning in two rural populations. 2 The arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the exposed population was 0.41 mg/l, and 0.007 mg/l in the control population. 3 The arsenic was present mainly (70%) in its pentavalent form. 4 The objective was to quantitate health effects and risks derived from chronic ingestion of arsenic in contaminated water. 5 In the exposed population, 21.6% of the sample, showed at least one of the cutaneous signs of chronic arsenic poisoning against 2.2% in the control town. 6 Non-specific symptoms were more prevalent in the exposed population and they occurred more frequently in those individuals with skin signs. 7 The relative risk of suffering a particular manifestation of poisoning, ranged from 1.9 to 36 times higher in the exposed population. 8 We estimated the risks above mentioned, which were derived from exposure to minute quantities of arsenic in a known proportion of its oxidation states during a life time period.
    Human toxicology 02/1983; 2(1):121-33.


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