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Available from: Charles Czeisler, Jul 02, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Although circadian and sleep research has made extraordinary progress in the recent years, one remaining challenge is the objective quantification of sleepiness in individuals suffering from sleep deprivation, sleep restriction, and excessive somnolence. The major goal of the present study was to apply principal component analysis to the wake electroencephalographic (EEG) spectrum in order to establish an objective measure of sleepiness. The present analysis was led by the hypothesis that in sleep-deprived individuals, the time course of self-rated sleepiness correlates with the time course score on the 2nd principal component of the EEG spectrum. The resting EEG of 15 young subjects was recorded at 2-h intervals for 32-50 h. Principal component analysis was performed on the sets of 16 single-Hz log-transformed EEG powers (1-16 Hz frequency range). The time course of self-perceived sleepiness correlated strongly with the time course of the 2nd principal component score, irrespective of derivation (frontal or occipital) and of analyzed section of the 7-min EEG record (2-min section with eyes open or any of the five 1-min sections with eyes closed). This result indicates the possibility of deriving an objective index of physiological sleepiness by applying principal component analysis to the wake EEG spectrum.
    Chronobiology International 04/2012; 29(4):509-22. DOI:10.3109/07420528.2012.667029
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Quantitative EEG measurement of sleepiness must be regarded both as fundamentally and practically important. In a search for the markers of physiological sleepiness, we tested whether the time course of self-perceived sleepiness/alertness correlates with the time courses of scores on principal components of the EEG spectrum. Subjects and methods The resting EEG was recorded in 15 healthy subjects with 2 h intervals in frontal and occipital derivations for the last 32–50 h of 44–61 h wakefulness. The correlation coefficients were calculated to test associations of the time course of self-perceived sleepiness/alertness with the time courses of spectral powers and scores on the two largest principal components of the EEG spectrum. Results and conclusion The results demonstrate that objective markers of sleepiness can be derived by means of principal component analysis of the EEG spectrum. A score on the 2nd principal component appears to be the most reliable correlate of sleepiness, because it exhibits the fastest decline at the boundary between wakefulness and sleep. A score on the 1st principal component was characterized by a decline before sleep onset followed by a rapid rise after it. These two scores were interpreted as the pure representatives of the wake and sleep drives, respectively, while spectral powers in separate frequency bands appear to reflect simultaneous influences of both drives.
    Somnologie - Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin 06/2012; 16(2). DOI:10.1007/s11818-012-0561-1
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Simple methods of sleepiness assessment are greatly needed for both fundamental research and practical applications. The Karolinska drowsiness test (KDT) was applied to construct physiological alertness scales and to validate them against such well-known instrument of subjective sleepiness assessment as the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS). METHODS: Seven-min EEG recordings were obtained with 2-h interval from frontal and occipital derivations during the last 32-50h of 44-61-h wakefulness of 15 healthy study participants. Occipital alpha-theta power difference and frontal and occipital scores on the 2nd principal component of the EEG spectrum were calculated for each one-min interval of 5-min eyes closed section of the record. RESULTS: To obtain scores (from 0 to 5) on alertness scales for each of these EEG indexes, all positive one-min values of the index were assigned to 1, and all remaining (negative) values were assigned to 0. Scores on any of the physiological alertness scales were found to be strongly associated with KSS scores. CONCLUSION: Physiological analogues of KSS were offered by utilising the EEG recordings on eyes closed interval of KDT. SIGNIFICANCE: The constructed physiological scales can help in improving validity and user-friendliness of the field and laboratory methods of quantification of drowsy state.
    Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2013.01.018