Halanaerobacter jeridensis sp. nov., isolated from a hypersaline lake.
ABSTRACT An obligatory anaerobic, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain CEJFG43(T), was isolated from a sample of sediment collected below the salt crust on the hypersaline El Jerid lake, in southern Tunisia. The cells of this novel strain were Gram-staining-negative, non-sporulating, motile, short rods. They grew in media with 6-30% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 15%), at 20-60 °C (optimum 45 °C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 8.3). The micro-organism fermented glucose, fructose, ribose, raffinose, galactose, mannose, sucrose, maltose, xylose, mannitol, pyruvate and glycerol. The products of glucose fermentation were lactate, ethanol, acetate, H(2) and CO(2). The genomic G+C DNA content of strain CEJFG43(T) was 33.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CEJFG43(T) belonged in the genus Halanaerobacter and was most closely related to Halanaerobacter lacunarum DSM 6640(T) (95.3% gene sequence similarity) and Halanaerobacter chitinivorans DSM 9569(T) (95.3%). The predominant cellular fatty acids were non-branched (C(16:0) and C(16:1)). Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain CEJFG43(T) represents a novel species in the genus Halanaerobacter for which the name Halanaerobacter jeridensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CEJFG43(T) ( = DSM 23230(T) = JCM 16696(T)).
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ABSTRACT: Two halophilic anaerobic bacteria, one of which had chitinolytic activity, were isolated from a solar saltern in southern California. These organisms were long, gram-negative, motile, flexible rods. The biochemical and physiological characteristics of these bacteria were very similar but were different from the characteristics of other haloanaerobic bacteria. Both grew at salt concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5 M and at temperatures ranging from 23 to 50 degrees C. They were sensitive to chloramphenicol but resistant to penicillin, carbenicillin, d-cycloserine, streptomycin, and tetracycline. An analysis of DNAs and whole-cell proteins showed that they were closely related taxonomically and distinguishable from other halophilic anaerobic bacteria. They exhibited 92.3 to 100% DNA homology as determined by DNA-DNA hybridization. The guanine-plus-cytosine contents of their DNAs were 34.8+/-1 mol%. The two isolates, strains W5C8 and W3C1, differed from other halophilic anaerobic bacteria sufficiently to support establishment of a new genus and species, Haloanaerobacter chitinovorans. Strain W5C8 exhibited chitinolytic activity and is designated the type strain. Two chitin-induced extracellular proteins with molecular weights of 38 x 10 and 40 x 10 were detected in strain W5C8.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 02/1992; 58(1):260-6. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel halophilic fermentative bacterium has been isolated from the black sediment below a gypsum crust and a microbial mat in hypersaline ponds of Mediterranean salterns. Morphologically, physiologically and genetically this organism belongs to the genus Haloanaerobacter. Haloanaerobacter strain SG 3903T (T = type strain) is composed of non-sporulating long flexible rods with peritrichous flagella, able to grow in the salinity range of 5-30% NaCl, with an optimum at 14-15%. The strain grows by fermenting carbohydrates or by using the Stickland reaction with either serine or H2 as electron donors and glycine-betaine as acceptor, which is reduced to trimethylamine. The two species described so far in the genus Haloanaerobacter are not capable of Stickland reaction with glycine-betaine + serine; however, Haloanaerobacter chitinovorans can use glycine-betaine with H2 as electron donor. Strain SG 3903T thus represents the first described strain in the genus Haloanaerobacter capable of the Stickland reaction with two amino acids. Although strain SG 3903T showed 67% DNA-DNA relatedness to H. chitinovorans, it is physiologically sufficiently different from the two described species to be considered as a new species which has been named Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov.International journal of systematic bacteriology 02/1999; 49 Pt 1:103-12. DOI:10.1099/00207713-49-1-103 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The fatty acid compositions and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns of 32 strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum correlated with two major deoxyribonucleic acid homology groups. In group I, the fatty acid composition was 1.3% 16:l cis9 acid, 3.6% 16:lC acid, 8.8% 16:O acid, 1.2% 19:0 cyclopropane acid, and 81.2% 18:l acid. Group I1 contained 0.5% 16:lC acid, 11.1% 16:O acid, 0.8% 17:O cyclopropane acid, 24.7% 19:O cyclopropane acid, and 62.3% 18:l acid. Group I strains were susceptible to rifampin (500 pglml), tetracycline (100 pglml), streptomycin (100 pg/ml), chloramphenicol (500 pg/ml), erythromycin (250 pglml), carbenicillin (500 pg/ml), and nalidixic acid (50 pg/ml), whereas group I1 strains were resistant to these antibiotics. Both groups were resistant to trimethoprim (50 pg/ml) and vancomycin (100 pglml). Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Jordan 1982) (formerly Rhi- zobium japonicum) is the slow-growing symbiont of soy- beans. This species is comprised of two highly divergent taxonomic groups which should be phenotypically distin- guishable. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybrid- ization studies of Hollis et al. (8) established DNA homology groups I, Ia, and 11. These groups were characterized with respect to acidic extracellular polysaccharide composition and phenotypic ex planta nitrogenase expression. Groups I and Ia were reported to be quite distinct from DNA homol- ogy group I1 according to both of these criteria (9). Using some of the same strains, Stanley et al. (21) characterized the DNA nucleotide sequence divergences in and proximal to known symbiotic genes and concluded that strains of B. japonicum comprise two symbiotic genotypes (sTI and sTII) consistent with separate species designations. Whole-cell fatty acid profiles of strains grown under standardized conditions have been used for identification (1, 4, 18) and classification of many bacteria (10, 17), but not in the genus Bradyrhizobium. Pankhurst et al. (20) correlated rifampin resistance in some slow-growing rhizobial strains with in vitro nitrogenase activity. This observation, together with that of Huber et al. (9) that only DNA homology group I1 strains express nitro- genase in vitro, suggested to us that patterns of antibiotic resistance might also distinguish the groups. In this paper we report that whole-cell fatty acid profiles correlate with DNA homology groups I and I1 of Hollis et al. (8) and that patterns of high-level resistance to antibiotics distinguish the two DNA homology groups.International journal of systematic bacteriology 10/1988; 38(4). DOI:10.1099/00207713-38-4-358 · 2.27 Impact Factor