Article

Evaluation of the efficacy of glyphosate plus urea phosphate in the greenhouse and the field.

College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, PR China.
Pest Management Science (Impact Factor: 2.74). 02/2012; 68(2):170-7. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2240
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glyphosate is a non-selective, foliar-applied, systemic herbicide that kills weeds by inhibiting the synthesis of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. Urea phosphate (UPP), made by the reaction of urea with phosphoric acid, was applied as an adjuvant for glyphosate in this study. Experiments in the greenhouse and the field were conducted to determine the effects of UPP by comparing the efficacies of glyphosate plus UPP, glyphosate plus 1-aminomethanamide dihydrogen tetraoxosulfate (AMADS) and Roundup.
The optimum concentration of UPP in glyphosate solution was 2.0% when UPP was used as an adjuvant. The ED50 values for glyphosate-UPP were 291.7 and 462.4 g AI ha(-1) in the greenhouse and the field respectively, while the values for Roundup were 448.2 and 519.6 g AI ha(-1). The ED50 values at 2 weeks after treatment (WAT) and 3 WAT were lowered when UPP was used as an adjuvant in the greenhouse and field study, and the glyphosate+UPP was absorbed over a 2 week period. UPP may increase the efficacy by causing severe cuticle disruption or accelerating the initial herbicide absorption. The result also showed that UPP could reduce the binding behaviour of Ca2+ to glyphosate.
The application of UPP as an adjuvant could increase the efficacy of glyphosate and make it possible to achieve effective control of weeds with glyphosate at lower dose. Moreover, UPP showed less causticity to spraying tools and presented less of a health hazard. Therefore, UPP is accepted as being a new, effective and environmentally benign adjuvant for glyphosate.

1 Bookmark
 · 
180 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatographic method for glyphosate analysis has been developed. Derivatization of glyphosate was performed with 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride (CNBF). In pH 9.5 H(3)BO(3)-Na(2)B(4)O(7) media, the reaction of glyphosate with CNBF completed at 60 degrees C for 30min. The labeled glyphosate was separated on a Kromasil C18 column (250mmx4.6mm, 5microm) at room temperature and UV detection was applied at 360nm. The separation of labeled glyphosate was achieved within 15min by gradient elution mode. Compared to other pre-column derivatization, this derivatization was performed more mildly, the derivative was more stable, and the detection limits of a few reagents were higher than CNBF, except 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) using fluorescence and mass spectrometry, however, this reagent avoid to be removed after derivatization like FMOC-Cl. The detection limit of glyphosate was 0.009mgL(-1) (S/N=3) without preconcentration and reach MRL, which is set at the level of 0.1mgL(-1) in China. The method linearity correlation coefficient was 0.9999, in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 48.5mgL(-1). The proposed method has been applied to the quantitative determination of glyphosate in environmental water with recoveries of 91.80-100.20% and R.S.D. of 2.27-6.80, depending on the sample investigated.
    Analytica chimica acta 04/2009; 635(2):222-6. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In a study aimed at finding environmentally benign adjuvants for glyphosate, ethoxylates of rapeseed oil and of methylated rapeseed oil were synthesized, with ethylene oxide (EO) content up to 40 and 8 respectively. They had less influence on spray retention by barley shoots than ethoxylated (15 EO) tallow amine (ETA). At 10 g L(-1), ethoxylated rapeseed oil with 30 or 40 EO and ethoxylated methylated rapeseed oil with 6 or 8 EO promoted glyphosate uptake by barley leaves to a greater extent than ETA at the same concentration. However, uptake rates were similar when the concentration was lowered to 2.8 and 3.1 g L(-1) for rapeseed oil derivatives and ETA respectively. In the case of ethoxylated methylated rapeseed oil with 8 EO (MeOil-8), glyphosate uptake increased when MeOil-8 concentration was raised from 5 to 10 g L(-1). In bioassays under controlled conditions, ethoxylated rapeseed oil with 40 EO (Oil-40) and MeOil-8 were slightly less effective than ETA in favouring the efficacy of glyphosate on barley. The same was found on ryegrass. However, both rapeseed oil derivatives compared well with glyphosate formulants such as ethoxylated diethylamine and alkyl ethoxy phosphate. In one field experiment, the efficacy of glyphosate in the presence of Oil-40, MeOil-8 or ETA was comparable with that of a commercial formulation. In another trial, MeOil-8 was as effective as ETA, but Oil-40 performed less well. It is concluded that ethoxylates of rapeseed oil and of methylated rapeseed oil are a promising chemistry for glyphosate adjuvants, provided that their ethylene oxide content is high.
    Pest Management Science 08/2007; 63(7):707-13. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since its commercial introduction in 1974, glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] has become the dominant herbicide worldwide. There are several reasons for its success. Glyphosate is a highly effective broad-spectrum herbicide, yet it is very toxicologically and environmentally safe. Glyphosate translocates well, and its action is slow enough to take advantage of this. Glyphosate is the only herbicide that targets 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), so there are no competing herbicide analogs or classes. Since glyphosate became a generic compound, its cost has dropped dramatically. Perhaps the most important aspect of the success of glyphosate has been the introduction of transgenic, glyphosate-resistant crops in 1996. Almost 90% of all transgenic crops grown worldwide are glyphosate resistant, and the adoption of these crops is increasing at a steady pace. Glyphosate/glyphosate-resistant crop weed management offers significant environmental and other benefits over the technologies that it replaces. The use of this virtually ideal herbicide is now being threatened by the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds. Adoption of resistance management practices will be required to maintain the benefits of glyphosate technologies for future generations.
    Pest Management Science 05/2008; 64(4):319-25. · 2.74 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
47 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014