Chronic kidney disease is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events; however, the relationship between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary angiography has yet to be fully elucidated.
This retrospective study enrolled a total of 7968 patients who underwent diagnostic coronary artery catheterization [mean age = 54.8 ± 10.6 years, 74.4% males] and did not have any previous history of coronary revascularization, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, end-stage renal disease treated by dialysis or renal transplantation, and were not taking diuretics or drugs acting on renin angiotensin system. The severity of CAD was defined as the number of coronary arteries with a luminal stenosis ≥50% on the angiogram, and the GFR was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI).
There were 2133 (26.8%) patients with GFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 4574 (57.4%) patients with 60 ≤ GFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 1073 (13.5%) with 45 ≤ GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 181 (2.3%) with 15 < GFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, dyslipidemia, low to high-density lipoprotein ratio, smoking status, and family history), the GFR showed a significant association with the severity of CAD and remained a significant predictor of CAD (Odds Ratio raised from 1.1 in patients with 60 ≤ GFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) to 1.8 in patients with 15 < GFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2)).
A reduced kidney function, even mildly, is significantly associated with CAD severity, independently of other traditional CAD risk factors.
"This finding suggested that the increased incidence of cardiovascular events among patients with impaired renal function might result from causes other than atherosclerotic burden. Others (8-12) have demonstrated that impaired renal function was independently associated with angiographic severity of CAD. In these studies, the severity of CAD was stratified only by the number of stenotic coronary arteries and did not account for the importance of either the location or severity of the stenosis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Although many studies have shown a higher prevalence of CAD among these patients, the association between the spectrum of renal dysfunction and severity of CAD remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the association between renal function and the severity of CAD. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,192 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography (CAG). The severity of CAD was evaluated by Gensini score according to the degree of luminal narrowing and location(s) of obstruction in the involved main coronary artery. In all patients, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was independently associated with Gensini score (β=-0.27, P < 0.001) in addition to diabetes mellitus (β=0.07, P = 0.02), hypertension (β=0.12, P < 0.001), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (β=0.08, P = 0.003), and hemoglobin (β=-0.07, P = 0.03) after controlling for other confounding factors. The result of this study demonstrates that decreased renal function is associated not only with the prevalence, but also the severity, of CAD.
Journal of Korean medical science 11/2013; 28(11):1615-1621. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.11.1615 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In-hospital mortality of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) in different European populations and renal dysfunction is variable. We aimed to evaluate in-hospital mortality for MI in chronic kidney disease (CKD), in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and in subjects admitted for MI without renal dysfunction living in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
We considered all cases of MI (first event) recorded in the database of hospital admissions of the region Emilia-Romagna of Italy, from January 1999 to December 2009. The criterion for inclusion was the presence, as a first discharge diagnosis, of acute MI (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification). The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), with the exclusion of CKD, was calculated. The outcome variable was in-hospital mortality for MI, and its association with comorbidities, CKD and ESRD, was analyzed.
During the considered period, 88,014 cases of first MI were recorded. The percentage of patients admitted with MI and died during hospitalization were higher in patients with ESRD (38.3 %) and CKD (16.5 %) than in those without renal dysfunction (14 %) (p < 0.01). In CKD and ESRD patients, data of in-hospital mortality for MI exhibited a twofold increase in the analyzed period. In-hospital mortality for MI was independently associated with age (OR 1.077, 95 % CI 1.075-1.080, p < 0.001), CCI excluding CKD (OR 1.101, 95 % CI 1.069-1.134, p < 0.001), cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.450, 95 % CI 1.349-1.557, p < 0.001), malignancy (OR 1.234, 95 % CI 1.153-1.320, p < 0.001), and ESRD (OR 4.137, 95 % CI 3.511-4.875, p < 0.001).
As for the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, in-hospital mortality for MI is increasing over the last years, and mortality seems to be related with patients' comorbidities and presence of advanced stages of CKD.
International Urology and Nephrology 07/2012; 45(3). DOI:10.1007/s11255-012-0250-9 · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate level and clinical characteristics and outcome in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with normal serum creatinine.
A total of 548 hospitalized and angiographic CAD patients with normal fasting serum creatinine were enrolled. The kidney function was estimated by using the abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) study equation. Patients were divided into three groups according to eGFR tertiles: high eGFR group (eGFR > 88.15 ml×min(-1)×1.73 m(-2), n = 184); intermediate group ZU(70.30 ml× min(-1)×1.73 m(-2) < eGFR ≤ 88.15 ml×min(-1)×1.73 m(-2), n = 187); low eGFR group (eGFR ≤ 70.30 ml × min(-1)×1.73 m(-2), n = 177). Clinical data and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded after admission and during (14.02 ± 8.31) months follow up. The primary end point was combined major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE) including death, targeted vascular revascularization, non-fatal myocardial infarction, rehospitalization due to unstable angina and heart failure, and transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke.
Patients in intermediate and low eGFR groups were older, more males, had more severe coronary artery disease, higher level of hsCRP, higher incidence of hypertension, and lower smoking rate than those in high eGFR group (all P < 0.05). A total of 89 MACCE were recorded during follow up. The level of eGFR was significantly lower in patients with MACCE than patients without MACCE [(73.76 ± 19.81) ml×min(-1)×1.73 m(-2) vs. (84.97 ± 23.42) ml×min(-1)×1.73 m(-2), P < 0.05]. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that eGFR was an independent predictor of MACCE in patients with CAD (univariate analysis: RR = 0.99, 95%CI:0.973-0.997, P < 0.05; multivariate analysis: RR = 0.98, 95%CI:0.976-0.998, P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that patients with low eGFR was linked with a decreased event free survival ratio (log-rank χ(2) = 7.271, P < 0.05).
eGFR level in CAD patients with normal serum creatinine is associated with coronary artery severity, inflammation level and serves as an independent predictor for MACCE in this patient cohort.
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi [Chinese journal of cardiovascular diseases] 07/2013; 41(7):563-567. DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-3758.2013.07.010
Eman M Alissa, Wafa A Alnahdi, Nabil Alama, Gordon A Ferns,
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