Melting, glass transition, and apparent heat capacity of α-D-glucose by thermal analysis.
ABSTRACT The thermal behaviors of α-D-glucose in the melting and glass transition regions were examined utilizing the calorimetric methods of standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), standard temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC), quasi-isothermal temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (quasi-TMDSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The quantitative thermal analyses of experimental data of crystalline and amorphous α-D-glucose were performed based on heat capacities. The total, apparent and reversingheat capacities, and phase transitions were evaluated on heating and cooling. The melting temperature (T(m)) of a crystalline carbohydrate such as α-D-glucose, shows a heating rate dependence, with the melting peak shifted to lower temperature for a lower heating rate, and with superheating of around 25K. The superheating of crystalline α-D-glucose is observed as shifting the melting peak for higher heating rates, above the equilibrium melting temperature due to of the slow melting process. The equilibrium melting temperature and heat of fusion of crystalline α-D-glucose were estimated. Changes of reversing heat capacity evaluated by TMDSC at glass transition (T(g)) of amorphous and melting process at T(m) of fully crystalline α-D-glucose are similar. In both, the amorphous and crystalline phases, the same origin of heat capacity changes, in the T(g) and T(m) area, are attributable to molecular rotational motion. Degradation occurs simultaneously with the melting process of the crystalline phase. The stability of crystalline α-D-glucose was examined by TGA and TMDSC in the melting region, with the degradation shown to be resulting from changes of mass with temperature and time. The experimental heat capacities of fully crystalline and amorphous α-D-glucose were analyzed in reference to the solid, vibrational, and liquid heat capacities, which were approximated based on the ATHAS scheme and Data Bank.