Design of the RINSE Trial: The Rapid Infusion of cold Normal Saline by paramedics during CPR

Ambulance Victoria, Victoria, Australia.
BMC Emergency Medicine 10/2011; 11:17. DOI: 10.1186/1471-227X-11-17
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) now recommends therapeutic hypothermia (TH) (33 °C for 12-24 hours) as soon as possible for patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from shockable rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and that it be considered for non shockable rhythms. The optimal timing of TH is still uncertain. Laboratory data have suggested that there is significantly decreased neurological injury if cooling is initiated during CPR. In addition, peri-arrest cooling may increase the rate of successful defibrillation. This study aims to determine whether paramedic cooling during CPR improves outcome compared standard treatment in patients who are being resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
This paper describes the methodology for a definitive multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial of paramedic cooling during CPR compared with standard treatment. Paramedic cooling during CPR will be achieved using a rapid infusion of large volume (20-40 mL/kg to a maximum of 2 litres) ice-cold (4 °C) normal saline.The primary outcome measure is survival at hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures are rates of return of spontaneous circulation, rate of survival to hospital admission, temperature on arrival at hospital, and 12 month quality of life of survivors.
This trial will test the effect of the administration of ice cold saline during CPR on survival outcomes. If this simple treatment is found to improve outcomes, it will have generalisability to prehospital services globally. NCT01172678.

Download full-text


Available from: Karen Smith, Jul 07, 2015
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many consider attempted resuscitation for traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) futile. This study aims to describe the characteristics and profile of paediatric traumatic OHCA. The Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry (VACAR) was used to identify all trauma related cases of OHCA in patients aged less than 16 years of age. Cases were linked with their coronial findings. Between 2000 and 2009, EMS attended 33,722 OHCAs including 2187 adult traumatic OHCAs. There were 538 (1.6%) OHCAs in children less than 16 years of age of which n=64 were due to trauma. The median age (IQR) of paediatric traumatic OHCA was 7 (4.5-13) years and 44 were male (69%). Bystander CPR was performed in 22 cases (34.4%). The first recorded rhythm by EMS was asystole seen in 42 (66%), PEA in 14 (22%) cases and VF in 2 cases (3%). Cardiac output was present in 7 (11%) cases who subsequently had an EMS witnessed OHCA. EMS attempted resuscitation in 35 (55%) patients of whom 7 (20%) achieved ROSC and were transported, and 1 (3%) survived to hospital discharge with severe neurological sequelae; 14(40%) were transported with CPR of whom none survived. Coronial cause of death was multiple injuries in 35%, head injury in 33%, head and neck injury in 10%, chest injuries in 10% and other causes (12%). Traumatic aetiology of OHCA when compared to the incidence of adult traumatic OHCAs is uncommon. Resuscitation efforts are seldom effective and associated with poor neurological outcome.
    Resuscitation 11/2011; 83(4):471-5. DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2011.11.009 · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a burgeoning treatment modality for post-cardiac arrest patients. Objectives: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent post-cardiac arrest TH at eight different institutions across the United States. Our objectives were to assess how TH is currently being implemented in emergency departments and to examine the feasibility of conducting TH research using multi-institution prospective data. Methods: A total of 94 cases were identified in a 3-year period and submitted for review by participating institutions of the Peri-Resuscitation Consortium. Of those, seven charts were excluded for missing data. Two independent reviewers performed the data abstraction. Results were subsequently compared, and discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer. We assessed patient demographics, initial presenting rhythm, time until TH initiation, duration of TH, cooling methods and temperature reached, survival to hospital discharge, and neurological status on discharged. Results: The majority of cases had initial cardiac rhythms of asystole or pulseless electrical activity (55.2%), followed by ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (34.5%). The inciting cardiac rhythm was unknown in 10.3% of cases. Time to initiation of TH ranged from 0 to 783 minutes with a mean time of 99 minutes (SD=132). Length of TH ranged from 25 to 2,171 minutes with a mean time of 1,191 minutes (SD=536). The average minimum temperature achieved was 32.5°C, with a range from 27.6°C to 36.7°C (SD=1.5°C). Of the 87 charts reviewed, 29 (33.3%) of the patients survived to hospital discharge. Conclusion: The implementation of TH across the country is extremely varied with no universally accepted treatment. While our study is limited by sample size, it illustrates some compelling trends. A large, prospective, multicenter trial or registry is necessary to elucidate further the optimal parameters for TH and its benefit in various population subsets.
    09/2012; 2(3):138-43. DOI:10.1089/ther.2012.0015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended for the treatment of cardiac arrest patients who remain comatose after the return of spontaneous circulation. However, the optimal time to initiate therapeutic hypothermia remains unclear. The objective of the present study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. METHODS: Databases such as MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from their establishment date to May of 2012 to retrieve randomized control trials on prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Thereafter, the studies retrieved were screened based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and the quality of the included studies was evaluated. A meta-analysis was performed by using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager 5.1.6 software. RESULTS: Five studies involving 633 cases were included, among which 314 cases were assigned to the treatment group and the other 319 cases to the control group. The meta-analysis indicated that prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest produced significant differences in temperature on hospital admission compared with in-hospital therapeutic hypothermia or normothermia (patient data; mean difference=-0.95; 95% confidence interval -1.15 to -0.75; I2=0%). However, no significant differences were observed in the survival to the hospital discharge, favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge, and rearrest. The risk of bias was low; however, the quality of the evidence was very low. CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates that prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest can decrease temperature on hospital admission. On the other hand, regarding the survival to hospital discharge, favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge, and rearrest, our meta-analysis and review produces non-significant results. Using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology, we conclude that the quality of evidence is very low.
    Resuscitation 02/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.02.003 · 3.96 Impact Factor