[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
Renin is the critical regulatory enzyme for production of angiotensin (Ang)-II, a potent vasoconstrictor involved in regulating blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Chronic sodium deprivation enhances renin secretion from the kidney, due to recruitment of additional cells from the afferent renal microvasculature to become renin-producing rather than just increasing release from existing juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. JG cells secrete renin inversely proportional to extra- and intracellular calcium, a unique phenomenon characteristic of the JG regulatory phenotype known as the "calcium paradox." It is not known if renin secreted from recruited renin-containing cells is regulated similarly to native JG cells, and therefore acquires this JG cell phenotype. We hypothesized that non-JG cells in renal microvessels recruited to produce renin in response to chronic dietary sodium restriction would demonstrate the calcium paradox, characteristic of the JG cell phenotype. Histology showed recruitment of upstream arteriolar renin in response to sodium restriction compared to normal-diet rats. Renin fluorescence intensity increased 53% in cortices of sodium-restricted rats (P<0.001). We measured renin release from rat afferent microvessels, isolated using iron oxide nanopowder and incubated in either normal or low-calcium media. Basal renin release from normal sodium-diet rat microvessels in normal calcium media was 298.1±44.6 ng AngI/mL/hour/mg protein, and in low-calcium media increased 39% to 415.9±71.4 ng AngI/mL/hour/mg protein (P<0.025). Renin released from sodium-restricted rat microvessels increased 50% compared to samples from normal-diet rats (P<0.04). Renin release in normal calcium media was 447.0±54.3 ng AngI/mL/hour/mg protein, and in low-calcium media increased 36% to 607.6±96.1 ng AngI/mL/hour/mg protein (P<0.05). Thus, renin-containing cells recruited in the afferent microvasculature not only express and secrete renin but demonstrate the calcium paradox, suggesting renin secretion from recruited renin-containing cells share the JG phenotype for regulating renin secretion.
Integrated Blood Pressure Control 01/2014; 7:9-17. DOI:10.2147/IBPC.S55684
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
The present study aims to investigate the regulatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) on cAMP homeostasis and renin degranulation in As4.1 and rat renin-rich kidney cells. It was found in the present study that NaHS at 0.1-10 μM significantly decreased cAMP production in As4.1 cells treated with isoproterenol (a β-adrenoceptor agonist), forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase activator), or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor). NaHS at 10 μM suppressed adenylate cyclase activity but stimulated phosphodiesterase activity. We continued to study whether H(2)S may mediate cAMP-dependent renin degranulaion in As4.1 cells. It was found that NaHS at 0.1-10 μM significantly increased intracellular renin protein level. Moreover, NaHS reversed the declined renin content within As4.1 cells and normalized the upregulated renin activity in the culture medium of As4.1 cells treated with the above three stimuli. RT-PCR showed that cystathionine-γ-lyase is the main enzyme to produce endogenous H(2)S in As4.1 cells. Overexpression of cystathionine-γ-lyase increased endogenous H(2)S production and suppressed isoproterenol-induced renin release, suggesting that endogenous H(2)S may also inhibit renin release from As4.1 cells. We also tested whether H(2)S has a similar effect in renin-rich kidney cells. It was found that isoproterenol elevated intracellular cAMP level and extracellular renin activity but decreased renin protein level in the renin-rich kidney cells. Pretreatment with NaHS abolished these effects. In conclusion, H(2)S regulates cAMP homeostasis via inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of phosphodiesterase. Our findings suggest that H(2)S plays a critical role in regulation of renin degranulation in As4.1 and rat renin-rich kidney cells.
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