Medical Nutrition Therapy in Hospitalized Patients with Diabetes
Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.Current Diabetes Reports (Impact Factor: 3.08). 02/2012; 12(1):93-100. DOI: 10.1007/s11892-011-0236-5
Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) plays an important role in management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus. The goals of inpatient MNT are to optimize glycemic control, to provide adequate calories to meet metabolic demands, and to create a discharge plan for follow-up care. All patients with and without diabetes should undergo nutrition assessment on admission with subsequent implementation of physiologically sound caloric support. The use of a consistent carbohydrate diabetes meal-planning system has been shown to be effective in facilitating glycemic control in hospitalized patients with diabetes. This system is based on the total amount of carbohydrate offered rather than on specific calorie content at each meal, which facilitates matching the prandial insulin dose to the amount of carbohydrate consumed. In this article, we discuss general guidelines for the implementation of appropriate MNT in hospitalized patients with diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: The aim was to formulate practice guidelines on the management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients in the non-critical care setting. The Task Force was composed of a chair, selected by the Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of The Endocrine Society, six additional experts, and a methodologist. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Endocrine Society members, American Diabetes Association, American Heart Association, American Association of Diabetes Educators, European Society of Endocrinology, and the Society of Hospital Medicine reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of this guideline. Hyperglycemia is a common, serious, and costly health care problem in hospitalized patients. Observational and randomized controlled studies indicate that improvement in glycemic control results in lower rates of hospital complications in general medicine and surgery patients. Implementing a standardized sc insulin order set promoting the use of scheduled basal and nutritional insulin therapy is a key intervention in the inpatient management of diabetes. We provide recommendations for practical, achievable, and safe glycemic targets and describe protocols, procedures, and system improvements required to facilitate the achievement of glycemic goals in patients with hyperglycemia and diabetes admitted in non-critical care settings.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2012; 97(1):16-38. DOI:10.1210/jc.2011-2098 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia is a frequent complication of enteral and parenteral nutrition in hospitalized patients. Extensive evidence from observational studies indicates that the development of hyperglycemia during parenteral and enteral nutrition is associated with an increased risk of death and infectious complications. There are no specific guidelines recommending glycemic targets and effective strategies for the management of hyperglycemia during specialized nutritional support. Managing hyperglycemia in these patients should include optimization of carbohydrate content and administration of intravenous or subcutaneous insulin therapy. The administration of continuous insulin infusion and insulin addition to nutrition bag are efficient approaches to control hyperglycemia during parenteral nutrition. Subcutaneous administration of long-acting insulin with scheduled or corrective doses of short-acting insulin is superior to the sliding scale insulin strategy in patients receiving enteral feedings. Randomized controlled studies are needed to evaluate safe and effective therapeutic strategies for the management of hyperglycemia in patients receiving nutritional support.Current Diabetes Reports 10/2012; 13(1). DOI:10.1007/s11892-012-0335-y · 3.08 Impact Factor