Article

Regulation of Alveolar Epithelial Na + Channels by ERK1/2 in Chlorine-Breathing Mice

Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, BMR II 224, 901 19th St. South, Birmingham, AL 35205-3703, USA.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.11). 03/2012; 46(3):342-54. DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2011-0309OC
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The mechanisms by which the exposure of mice to Cl(2) decreases vectorial Na(+) transport and fluid clearance across their distal lung spaces have not been elucidated. We examined the biophysical, biochemical, and physiological changes of rodent lung epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) after exposure to Cl(2), and identified the mechanisms involved. We measured amiloride-sensitive short-circuit currents (I(amil)) across isolated alveolar Type II (ATII) cell monolayers and ENaC single-channel properties by patching ATII and ATI cells in situ. α-ENaC, γ-ENaC, total and phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2, and advanced products of lipid peroxidation in ATII cells were measured by Western blot analysis. Concentrations of reactive intermediates were assessed by electron spin resonance (ESR). Amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channels with conductances of 4.5 and 18 pS were evident in ATI and ATII cells in situ of air-breathing mice. At 1 hour and 24 hours after exposure to Cl(2), the open probabilities of these two channels decreased. This effect was prevented by incubating lung slices with inhibitors of ERK1/2 or of proteasomes and lysosomes. The exposure of ATII cell monolayers to Cl(2) increased concentrations of reactive intermediates, leading to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and decreased I(amil) and α-ENaC concentrations at 1 hour and 24 hours after exposure. The administration of antioxidants to ATII cells before and after exposure to Cl(2) decreased concentrations of reactive intermediates and ERK1/2 activation, which mitigated the decrease in I(amil) and ENaC concentrations. The reactive intermediates formed during and after exposure to Cl(2) activated ERK1/2 in ATII cells in vitro and in vivo, leading to decreased ENaC concentrations and activity.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Jack Lancaster, Aug 28, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
163 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) and acid-sensitive ion channel (ASIC) branches of the ENaC/degenerin superfamily of cation channels have drawn increasing attention as potential therapeutic targets in a variety of diseases and conditions. Originally thought to be solely expressed in fluid absorptive epithelia and in neurons, it has become apparent that members of this family exhibit nearly ubiquitous expression. Therapeutic opportunities range from hypertension, due to the role of ENaC in maintaining whole body salt and water homeostasis, to anxiety disorders and pain associated with ASIC activity. As a physiologist intrigued by the fundamental mechanics of salt and water transport, it was natural that Dale Benos, to whom this series of reviews is dedicated, should have been at the forefront of research into the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel. The cloning of ENaC and subsequently the ASIC channels has revealed a far wider role for this channel family than was previously imagined. In this review, we will discuss the known and potential roles of ENaC and ASIC subunits in the wide variety of pathologies in which these channels have been implicated. Some of these, such as the role of ENaC in Liddle's syndrome are well established, others less so; however, all are related in that the fundamental defect is due to inappropriate channel activity.
    AJP Cell Physiology 01/2012; 302(7):C943-65. DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00019.2012 · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Chlorine (Cl(2))-induced lung injury is a serious public health threat that may result from industrial and household accidents. Post-Cl(2) administration of aerosolized ascorbate in rodents decreased lung injury and mortality. However, the extent to which aerosolized ascorbate augments depleted ascorbate stores in distal lung compartments has not been assessed. Methods: We exposed rats to Cl(2) (300 ppm for 30 min) and returned them to room air. Within 15-30 min postexposure, rats breathed aerosolized ascorbate and desferal or vehicle (mean particle size 3.3 μm) through a nose-only exposure system for 60 min and were euthanized. We measured the concentrations of reduced ascorbate in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), plasma, and lung tissues with high-pressure liquid chromatography, protein plasma concentration in the BAL, and the volume of the epithelia lining fluid (ELF). Results: Cl(2)-exposed rats that breathed aerosolized vehicle had lower values of ascorbate in their BAL, ELF, and lung tissues compared to air-breathing rats. Delivery of aerosolized ascorbate increased reduced ascorbate in BAL, ELF, lung tissues, and plasma of both Cl(2) and air-exposed rats without causing lung injury. Based on mean diameter of aerosolized particles and airway sizes we calculated that approximately 5% and 1% of inhaled ascorbate was deposited in distal lung regions of air and Cl(2)-exposed rats, respectively. Significantly higher ascorbate levels were present in the BAL of Cl(2)-exposed rats when aerosol delivery was initiated 1 h post-Cl(2). Conclusions: Aerosol administration is an effective, safe, and noninvasive method for the delivery of low molecular weight antioxidants to the lungs of Cl(2)-exposed individuals for the purpose of decreasing morbidity and mortality. Delivery is most effective when initiated 1 h postexposure when the effects of Cl(2) on minute ventilation subside.
    Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery 03/2012; DOI:10.1089/jamp.2011.0963 · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salt absorption via apical epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) is a critical rate-limiting process in maintaining airway and lung lining fluid at the physiological level. δ ENaC (termed δ1 in this article) has been detected in human lung epithelial cells in addition to α, β, and γ subunits (Ji HL, Su XF, Kedar S, Li J, Barbry P, Smith PR, Matalon S, Benos DJ. J Biol Chem 281: 8233-8241, 2006; Nie HG, Chen L, Han DY, Li J, Song WF, Wei SP, Fang XH, Gu X, Matalon S, Ji HL, J Physiol 587: 2663-2676, 2009) and may contribute to the differences in the biophysical properties of amiloride-inhibitable cation channels in pulmonary epithelial cells. Here we cloned a splicing variant of the δ1 ENaC, namely, δ2 ENaC in human bronchoalveolar epithelial cells (16HBEo). δ2 ENaC possesses 66 extra amino acids attached to the distal amino terminal tail of the δ1 ENaC. δ2 ENaC was expressed in both alveolar type I and II cells of human lungs as revealed by in situ hybridization and real-time RT-PCR. To characterize the biophysical and pharmacological features of the splicing variant, we injected Xenopus oocytes with human ENaC cRNAs and measured whole cell and single channel currents of δ1βγ, δ2βγ, and αβγ channels. Oocytes injected with δ2βγ cRNAs exhibited whole cell currents significantly greater than those expressing δ1βγ and αβγ channels. Single channel activity, unitary conductance, and open probability of δ2βγ channels were significantly greater compared with δ1βγ and αβγ channels. In addition, δ2βγ and δ1βγ channels displayed significant differences in apparent Na(+) affinity, dissociation constant for amiloride (K(i)(amil)), the EC(50) for capsazepine activation, and gating kinetics by protons. Channels comprising of this novel splice variant may contribute to the diversities of native epithelial Na(+) channels.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 04/2012; 302(12):L1262-72. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00331.2011 · 4.04 Impact Factor
Show more