Clinical Validation of the ISGPF Classification and the Risk Factors of Pancreatic Fistula Formation Following Duct-to-Mucosa Pancreaticojejunostomy by One Surgeon at a Single Center
ABSTRACT Postoperative pancreatic fistula remains a troublesome complication after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), and many authors have suggested factors that affect pancreatic leakage after PD. The International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) published a classification, but the new criteria adopted have not been substantially validated. The aims of this study were to validate the ISGPF classification and to analyze the risk factors of pancreatic leakage after duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy by a single surgeon.
All patient data were entered prospectively into a database. The risk factors for pancreatic fistula were analyzed retrospectively for 247 consecutive patients who underwent conventional pancreatoduodenectomy or pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy between June 2005 and March 2009 at the Samsung Medical Center by a single surgeon. Duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy was performed on all patients. The ISGPF criteria were used to define postoperative pancreatic fistula.
Conventional pancreatoduodenectomy was performed in 84 patients and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy in 163. Postoperative complications occurred in 144 (58.3%) patients, but there was no postoperative in-hospital mortality. Pancreatic fistula occurred in 105 (42.5%) [grade A, 82 (33.2%); grade B, 9 (3.6%); grade C, 14 (5.7%)]. However, no difference was evident between the no fistula group and the grade A fistula group in terms of clinical findings, including postoperative hospital stays (11 versus 12 days, respectively, p = 0.332). Mean durations of hospital stay in the grade B and C fistula groups were significantly longer than in the no fistula group (21 and 28.5 days, respectively; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that a soft pancreas and a long operation time (>300 min) were individually associated with pancreatic fistula formation of grades B and C.
Although the new ISGPF classification appears to be sound in terms of postoperative pancreatic leakage, grade A fistulas lack clinical implications; thus, we are of the opinion that only grade B and C fistulas should be considered in practice. A soft pancreatic texture and an operation time exceeding 300 min were found to be risk factors of grade B and C pancreatic fistulas.
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ABSTRACT: Understanding a patient's risk of pancreatic fistula (PF) prior to pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) would permit an individualised approach to patient selection, consent and, potentially, treatment. Various intra and post operative factors including pancreatic duct width and steatosis are associated with PF. We sought to identify whether information available in the pre-operative phase can predict PF. Associations between patient characteristics, pre-operative blood test results, data from pre-operative CT imaging and PF were explored. Pancreatic density (Hounsfield units, Hu), pancreatic duct size and gland thickness were measured using CT imaging. PF occurred in 42 of 155 cases (types A, B and C: 32, 8, 2 respectively). An inverse relationship between duct width and PF was observed. The odds ratio of PF, for each 1 mm increase in duct width, was 0.639 (95% CI = 0.531-0.769, p < 0.001). The gland thickness and density at the pancreatic resection margin were positively associated with PF (both p = 0.03). No patient variable was associated with PF. Pancreatic duct width has previously been assessed at the time of operation and simply regarded as normal or wide. Consideration of duct width as a continuous variable using pre-operative CT imaging can be used to simply predict risk of PF. The association between pancreatic density and PF is a novel finding. Whether pancreatic density in Hu relates to steatosis, as it does for hepatic steatosis, merits further review given the association between pancreatic steatosis and PF.Pancreatology 07/2013; 13(4):423-8. DOI:10.1016/j.pan.2013.04.322 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most common and an intractable complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Many efforts have been made to lessen POPF, but nevertheless its incidence still remains high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of reinforcing the pancreatic remnant, but the non-reinforcement of the anastomotic line, by using a modified polyethylene glycolic acid (PGA) felt pasting method after PD, especially in cases with a soft pancreas. Pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) anastomosis was performed with the end-to-side 2-layer manner in which the cut end of the pancreatic remnant was pasted with PGA felts using a fibrin sealant in 31 patients (PGA group). The postoperative outcome was then compared with historical control subjects (control group, 33 patients). Incidences of overall, Grade A and Grade B of POPF in the PGA group were 29.0, 22.6 and 6.5%, respectively, and tended to be lower than that in the control group (48.5, 33.3 and 15.2%), although no statistical significance was observed. There was no Grade C of POPF in this study. Referring only to the soft pancreas, however, the overall incidence of POPF in the PGA group was significantly lower than that in the control group (39.1 vs. 70.0%, p=0.042). Applying PGA felt pasting to PJ anastomosis could be one effective measure for reducing POPF after PD.International Journal of Surgery (London, England) 07/2013; 11(9). DOI:10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.07.007 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Various factors are related to the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Some of the strongest are identified intra- or postoperatively, which limits their utility in predicting this complication. The preoperative prediction of POPF permits an individualized approach to patient consent and selection, and may influence postoperative management. This study sought to develop and test a score to predict POPF. A post hoc analysis of a prospectively maintained database was conducted. Consecutive patients were randomly selected to modelling and validation sets at a ratio of 2 : 1, respectively. Patient data, preoperative blood tests and physical characteristics of the gland (assessed from preoperative computed tomography images) were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis in the modelling set of patients. A score predictive of POPF was designed and tested in the validation set. Postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 77 of 325 (23.7%) patients. The occurrence of POPF was associated with 12 factors. On multivariate analysis, body mass index and pancreatic duct width were independently associated with POPF. A risk score to predict POPF was designed (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.832, 95% confidence interval 0.768-0.897; P < 0.001) and successfully tested upon the validation set. Preoperative assessment of a patient's risk for POPF is possible using simple measurements. The present risk score is a valid tool with which to predict POPF in patients undergoing PD.HPB 11/2013; 16(7). DOI:10.1111/hpb.12186 · 2.05 Impact Factor