Clinical Validation of the ISGPF Classification and the Risk Factors of Pancreatic Fistula Formation Following Duct-to-Mucosa Pancreaticojejunostomy by One Surgeon at a Single Center
ABSTRACT Postoperative pancreatic fistula remains a troublesome complication after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), and many authors have suggested factors that affect pancreatic leakage after PD. The International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) published a classification, but the new criteria adopted have not been substantially validated. The aims of this study were to validate the ISGPF classification and to analyze the risk factors of pancreatic leakage after duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy by a single surgeon.
All patient data were entered prospectively into a database. The risk factors for pancreatic fistula were analyzed retrospectively for 247 consecutive patients who underwent conventional pancreatoduodenectomy or pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy between June 2005 and March 2009 at the Samsung Medical Center by a single surgeon. Duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy was performed on all patients. The ISGPF criteria were used to define postoperative pancreatic fistula.
Conventional pancreatoduodenectomy was performed in 84 patients and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy in 163. Postoperative complications occurred in 144 (58.3%) patients, but there was no postoperative in-hospital mortality. Pancreatic fistula occurred in 105 (42.5%) [grade A, 82 (33.2%); grade B, 9 (3.6%); grade C, 14 (5.7%)]. However, no difference was evident between the no fistula group and the grade A fistula group in terms of clinical findings, including postoperative hospital stays (11 versus 12 days, respectively, p = 0.332). Mean durations of hospital stay in the grade B and C fistula groups were significantly longer than in the no fistula group (21 and 28.5 days, respectively; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that a soft pancreas and a long operation time (>300 min) were individually associated with pancreatic fistula formation of grades B and C.
Although the new ISGPF classification appears to be sound in terms of postoperative pancreatic leakage, grade A fistulas lack clinical implications; thus, we are of the opinion that only grade B and C fistulas should be considered in practice. A soft pancreatic texture and an operation time exceeding 300 min were found to be risk factors of grade B and C pancreatic fistulas.
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ABSTRACT: Postoperative pancreatic fistula is one of the most common complications after pancreatectomy. This study aimed to assess the occurrence and severity of pancreatic fistula after central pancreatectomy. The medical records of 13 patients who had undergone central pancreatectomy were retrospectively studied, together with a literature review of studies including at least five cases of central pancreatectomy. Pancreatic fistula was defined and graded according to the recommendations of the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF). No death was observed in the 13 patients. Pancreatic fistula developed in 7 patients and was successfully treated non-operatively. None of these patients required re-operation. A total of 40 studies involving 867 patients who underwent central pancreatectomy were reviewed. The overall pancreatic fistula rate of the patients was 33.4% (0-100%). Of 279 patients, 250 (89.6%) had grade A or B fistulae of ISGPF and were treated non-operatively, and the remaining 29 (10.4%) had grade C fistulae of ISGPF. In 194 patients, 15 (7.7%) were re-operated upon. Only one patient with grade C fistula of ISGPF died from multiple organ failure after re-operation. Despite the relatively high occurrence, most pancreatic fistulae after central pancreatectomy are recognized a grade A or B fistula of ISGPF, which can be treated conservatively or by mini-invasive approaches.Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT 04/2014; 13(2):203-8. DOI:10.1016/S1499-3872(14)60032-1 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Various factors are related to the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Some of the strongest are identified intra- or postoperatively, which limits their utility in predicting this complication. The preoperative prediction of POPF permits an individualized approach to patient consent and selection, and may influence postoperative management. This study sought to develop and test a score to predict POPF. A post hoc analysis of a prospectively maintained database was conducted. Consecutive patients were randomly selected to modelling and validation sets at a ratio of 2 : 1, respectively. Patient data, preoperative blood tests and physical characteristics of the gland (assessed from preoperative computed tomography images) were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis in the modelling set of patients. A score predictive of POPF was designed and tested in the validation set. Postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 77 of 325 (23.7%) patients. The occurrence of POPF was associated with 12 factors. On multivariate analysis, body mass index and pancreatic duct width were independently associated with POPF. A risk score to predict POPF was designed (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.832, 95% confidence interval 0.768-0.897; P < 0.001) and successfully tested upon the validation set. Preoperative assessment of a patient's risk for POPF is possible using simple measurements. The present risk score is a valid tool with which to predict POPF in patients undergoing PD.HPB 11/2013; 16(7). DOI:10.1111/hpb.12186 · 2.05 Impact Factor