Use of mean spot urine sodium concentrations to estimate daily sodium intake in patients with chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT Sodium intake is an important issue for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The two most widely used methods to measure sodium are 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa), which can be difficult to perform routinely, and sodium intake by dietary recall, which can be inaccurate. This study evaluated use of the mean value of three spot urinary sodium (UNa) concentrations to estimate daily sodium intake in patients with CKD.
This cross-sectional study enrolled 305 patients with CKD, none of whom were on dialysis, who visited the nephrology clinic at the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). We performed three spot UNa tests, three calculations of the UNa/creatinine (UCr) ratio, one measurement of 24HUNa, and one measurement of sodium intake by dietary recall.
The 24HUNa and mean spot UNa values were significantly lower in patients with more advanced CKD (P = 0.006 and P < 0.001, respectively). One-time spot UNa was significantly higher in the evening than in the morning for patients with stage III, IV, or V CKD. Total sodium intake, but not sodium nutrient density (milligrams of sodium per 1000 kcal), was significantly different for patients with different stages of CKD (P = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between 24HUNa and mean spot UNa was 0.477 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.384-0.562, P < 0.001), slightly higher than that between 24HUNa excretion and mean spot UNa/UCr (r = 0.313, 95% CI 0.207-0.465, P < 0.001). There was a linear relation between spot UNa and 24HUNa: mean spot UNa = 0.27 × 24HUNa + 60. Therefore, a 24HUNa excretion of 87 mEq (sodium intake 2 g/d) corresponded to a mean spot UNa level of 83 mEq/L. The correlation coefficient between sodium intake and mean spot UNa was 0.435 (95% CI 0.336-0.524, P < 0.001), significantly higher than that between sodium intake and mean spot UNa/UCr (r = 0.197, 95% CI 0.091-0.301, P = 0.001). Mean spot UNa tended to be better correlated with 24HUNa than with sodium intake.
Mean spot UNa is a simple and effective method that can be used to monitor sodium intake in patients with CKD. A daily intake of 2 g of sodium corresponds to a mean spot UNa level of approximately 83 mEq/L in patients with CKD.
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ABSTRACT: Test case prioritization techniques schedule test cases for execution in an order that attempts to increase their effectiveness at meeting some performance goal. Various goals are possible; one involves rate of fault detection --- a measure of how quickly faults are detected within the testing process. An improved rate of fault detection during testing can provide faster feedback on the system under test and let software engineers begin correcting faults earlier than might otherwise be possible. One application of prioritization techniques involves regression testing -- the retesting of software following modifications; in this context, prioritization techniques can take advantage of information gathered about the previous execution of test cases to obtain test case orderings. In this paper, we describe several techniques for using test execution information to prioritize test cases for regression testing, including: (1) techniques that order test cases based on their total co...10/2000;
Article: Interprocedural control dependence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Program-dependence information is useful for a variety of applications, such as software testing and maintenance tasks, and code optimization. Properly defined, control and data dependences can be used to identify semantic dependences. To function effectively on whole programs, tools that utilize dependence information require information about interprocedural dependences: dependences that are identified by analyzing the interactions among procedures. Many techniques for computing interprocedural data dependences exist; however, virtually no attention has been paid to interprocedural control dependence. Analysis techniques that fail to account for interprocedural control dependences can suffer unnecessary imprecision and loss of safety. This article presents a definition of interprocedural control dependence that supports the relationship of control and data dependence to semantic dependence. The article presents two approaches for computing interprocedural control dependences, and empirical results pertaining to teh use of those approaches.ACM Trans. Softw. Eng. Methodol. 01/2001; 10:209-254.
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ABSTRACT: A formal, general model of program dependences is presented and used to evaluate several dependence-based software testing, debugging, and maintenance techniques. Two generalizations of control and data flow dependence, called weak and strong syntactic dependence, are introduced and related to a concept called semantic dependence. Semantic dependence models the ability of a program statement to affect the execution behavior of other statements. It is shown that weak syntactic dependence is a necessary but not sufficient condition for semantic dependence and that strong syntactic dependence is necessary but not sufficient condition for a restricted form of semantic dependence that is finitely demonstrated. These results are used to support some proposed uses of program dependences, to controvert others, and to suggest new usesIEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 10/1990; · 2.59 Impact Factor