Article

Use of mean spot urine sodium concentrations to estimate daily sodium intake in patients with chronic kidney disease

Department of Dietetics and Nutrition Service, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Korea.
Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.05). 03/2012; 28(3):256-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2011.06.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sodium intake is an important issue for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The two most widely used methods to measure sodium are 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa), which can be difficult to perform routinely, and sodium intake by dietary recall, which can be inaccurate. This study evaluated use of the mean value of three spot urinary sodium (UNa) concentrations to estimate daily sodium intake in patients with CKD.
This cross-sectional study enrolled 305 patients with CKD, none of whom were on dialysis, who visited the nephrology clinic at the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). We performed three spot UNa tests, three calculations of the UNa/creatinine (UCr) ratio, one measurement of 24HUNa, and one measurement of sodium intake by dietary recall.
The 24HUNa and mean spot UNa values were significantly lower in patients with more advanced CKD (P = 0.006 and P < 0.001, respectively). One-time spot UNa was significantly higher in the evening than in the morning for patients with stage III, IV, or V CKD. Total sodium intake, but not sodium nutrient density (milligrams of sodium per 1000 kcal), was significantly different for patients with different stages of CKD (P = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between 24HUNa and mean spot UNa was 0.477 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.384-0.562, P < 0.001), slightly higher than that between 24HUNa excretion and mean spot UNa/UCr (r = 0.313, 95% CI 0.207-0.465, P < 0.001). There was a linear relation between spot UNa and 24HUNa: mean spot UNa = 0.27 × 24HUNa + 60. Therefore, a 24HUNa excretion of 87 mEq (sodium intake 2 g/d) corresponded to a mean spot UNa level of 83 mEq/L. The correlation coefficient between sodium intake and mean spot UNa was 0.435 (95% CI 0.336-0.524, P < 0.001), significantly higher than that between sodium intake and mean spot UNa/UCr (r = 0.197, 95% CI 0.091-0.301, P = 0.001). Mean spot UNa tended to be better correlated with 24HUNa than with sodium intake.
Mean spot UNa is a simple and effective method that can be used to monitor sodium intake in patients with CKD. A daily intake of 2 g of sodium corresponds to a mean spot UNa level of approximately 83 mEq/L in patients with CKD.

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