The effect of ghrelin pretreatment on epididymal sperm quality and tissue antioxidant enzyme activities after testicular ischemia/reperfusion in rats.
ABSTRACT Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been reported to prevent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in various tissues by its antioxidant activity. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of ghrelin on sperm quality and antioxidant enzyme activity in a rat testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury model. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into groups control, I/R, and I/R plus ghrelin. The right testes were rotated 720° for 1 h and were allowed to reperfuse for 4 h and 30 days thereafter. Ghrelin (40 nmol/kg IP) or vehicle (physiological saline) was administrated 15 min before reperfusion. After 4 h of reperfusion, a right orchiectomy was performed to measure the biochemical parameters. In addition, the sperm was collected from the epididymis after 30 days of reperfusion, and sperm characteristics were examined. The malondialdehyde levels of the testis tissues were significantly increased, but a statistically significant decrease was found in the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities in the I/R group as compared with the control, indicating I/R injury. The sperm evaluation showed a significant reduction in all characteristics resulted from I/R compared with the control. In the ghrelin-treated group, the malondialdehyde values were significantly lowered, and only enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase showed significant increases compared with the I/R group. Ghrelin significantly enhanced sperm motility, movement, and concentration but did not prevent I/R-induced reduction in membrane integrity in the testes of rats compared to the I/R group. Our results suggest that ghrelin treatment has a protective role on IR-induced testicular injury, and this effect may be due to its antioxidant properties.
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ABSTRACT: The role of ghrelin and obestatin in male reproduction has not completely been clarified. We explored ghrelin and obestatin localisation in the male reproductive system. Polyclonal antibodies anti-ghrelin and anti-obestatin were used to detect the expression of these hormones in human testis, prostate and seminal vesicles by immunocytochemistry, while in ejaculated and swim up selected spermatozoa by immunofluorescence. Sertoli cells were positive for both peptides and Leydig cells for ghrelin; germ cells were negative for both hormones. Mild signals for ghrelin and obestatin were observed in rete testis; efferent ductules were the most immune reactive region for both peptides. Epididymis was moderately positive for ghrelin; vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed intense obestatin and moderate ghrelin labelling; prostate tissue expressed obestatin alone. Ejaculated and selected spermatozoa were positive for both peptides in different head and tail regions. This study confirms ghrelin localisation in Leydig and Sertoli cells; the finding that ghrelin is expressed in rete testis, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles is novel, as well as the localisation of obestatin in almost all tracts of the male reproductive system. This research could offer insights for stimulating other studies, particularly on the role of obestatin in sperm physiology, which is still obscure.Andrologia 10/2013; 46(9). DOI:10.1111/and.12183 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: It is generally agreed that most of the phenomena observed during brain ischemia and reperfusion can be explained by the damage to membrane structure. Oxidative stress is resulted in an imbalance between high consumption of oxygen and low levels of endogenous antioxidants. It is known that gallic acid (GA) is a strong antioxidant. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of GA on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar adult male rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into six groups as sham operated (Sh), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) received normal saline (I+Veh), I/R groups treated with gallic acid (I+GA, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, orally, respectively), or with 100 mg /kg phenytoin (I+Phen). The global cerebral I/R injury was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCA) for 20 min, followed by 5 days reperfusion in adult male rats. Results: It was found that administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 5 days before and 5 days after I/R induction reversed gait performance, sensorimotor disorders (p<0.01), and hypoalgesia (p<0.001) while dose of 50 mg/kg increased passive avoidance memory significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings clearly demonstrate that GA has beneficial effects on behavioral impairments after brain injury induced by I/R. The results of this study show that GA pretreatment ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and enhances the antioxidant defense against BCCA occlusion-induced I/R in rats, so it exhibits cerebroprotective property.Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 02/2013; 3(4):329-40.
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin administration induces DNA damage resulting in germ cell apoptosis and subsequent testicular atrophy. Although fifty percent of male cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy develop long-term secondary infertility, medical treatment to prevent spermatogenic failure after chemotherapy is not available. Under normal conditions, testicular p53 promotes cell cycle arrest, which allows time for DNA repair and reshuffling during meiosis. However, its role in the setting of cisplatin-induced infertility has not been studied. Ghrelin administration ameliorates the spermatogenic failure that follows cisplatin administration in mice but the mechanisms mediating these effects have not been well established. The aim of the current study was to characterize the mechanisms of ghrelin and p53 action in the testis after cisplatin-induced testicular damage. Here we show that cisplatin induces germ cell damage through inhibition of p53-dependent DNA repair mechanisms involving γ-H2AX and ataxia telangectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. As a result, testicular weight, sperm count and motility were decreased with an associated increase in sperm DNA damage. Ghrelin administration prevented these sequelae by restoring the normal expression of γ-H2AX, ATM and p53, which in turn allows repair of DNA double stranded breaks. In conclusion, these findings indicate that ghrelin has the potential to prevent or diminish infertility caused by cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic agents by restoring p53-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Copyright 2015 by The Society for the Study of Reproduction.Biology of Reproduction 05/2015; DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.115.129759 · 3.45 Impact Factor