Associated Morbidity of Chalazia
ABSTRACT Chalazion may be associated with some local and systemic conditions. We studied the prevalence of various conditions among patients with chalazion.
A retrospective observational case-control study of all the members who were diagnosed with chalazion in the Central District of Clalit Health Services in Israel (years 2000-2008; n = 9119) and 9119 age- and gender-matched controls randomly selected from the district members. We calculated the prevalence of various ocular, systemic, and demographic conditions as risk factors for chalazion.
Demographically, a significant (P < 0.0001) tendency to develop chalazion was found in the population of lower socioeconomic class, in the population living in urban areas, in young females (10-29 years), in older men (older than 60 years), and in non-Ashkenazi Jews. The following risk factors of chalazion were statistically significant: blepharitis [odds ratio (OR), 6.2], rosacea (OR, 2.9), gastritis (OR, 1.4), anxiety (OR, 1.5), irritable bowel syndrome (OR, 1.7), and smoking (OR, 1.2). Diabetes (OR, 0.8) and hypothyroidism (OR, 0.8) were significantly less prevalent among chalazion patients.
Some systemic conditions are significantly more prevalent and some are significantly less prevalent among patients with chalazion. Better understanding of the pathophysiological association between those diseases and chalazion may help in its treatment and prevention.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to conduct histopathologic and lipidomic analyses of chalazia, in order to evaluate time-dependent changes in the lesion. Samples of surgically excised chalazia were collected over a period of 12 months from 10 patients (mean age 41 years; range, 23-58) with clinically diagnosed chalazia, who underwent scheduled surgery. The ages of chalazia varied from 2 to 28 weeks. To confirm the clinical diagnoses, the morphology of collected tissue samples was evaluated histologically after hematoxylin and eosin staining. The lipids from individual chalazia were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with authentic lipid standards and with the lipids of meibum collected from normal controls. We observed gradual, lesion age-dependent transformation of the lipidome of chalazia from an almost normal meibum-like composition to a very different kind of lipidome. A rapid initial increase in the free cholesterol content was followed by a gradual replacement of extremely long chain meibomian-type lipids with a mixture of shorter-chain cholesteryl esters of the C14-C18 family, triacylglycerols, ceramides, phospholipids and sphingomyelins. In addition, a rapid disappearance of wax esters and cholesteryl esters of (1-O)-acyl-omega-hydroxy fatty acids from the lipidome of aging chalazia was observed. Our results are indicative of dramatic, time-dependent changes in the lesion that may involve cholesterol as a trigger and/or a marker of subsequent degeneration of the meibomian lipidome. We hypothesize that early inhibition of these transformations may be useful in reversing the course of the disease.Experimental Eye Research 08/2014; 127. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2014.08.008 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlation between demodicosis and chalazia in patients with the latter. Prospective, observational, comparative study. Forty-four adult and 47 pediatric patients with chalazia and 34 adult and 30 pediatric age- and sex-matched patients without chalazia treated at an institutional referral eye center were included. All 155 patients underwent lash sampling followed by microscopic identification and counting of Demodex mites. All 91 patients with chalazia underwent surgical removal, and among them, 74 were followed up for 18 ± 4.3 months after surgery. Statistical correlation between ocular demodicosis and chalazia and its postoperative recurrence was performed. Demodicosis was significantly more prevalent in chalazia patients than in control patients as a group (69.2% vs 20.3%) and when separated into pediatric (70.2% vs 13.3%) and adult (68.2% vs 26.5%) subgroups (all P < .001). Demodicosis was associated strongly with chalazia (odds ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 2.17 to 8.87; P < .001). D. brevis was significantly more prevalent (odds ratio, 18.21; 95% confidence interval, 2.22 to 149.74; P = .01) than D. folliculorum (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 6.84, P = .02) in patients with chalazia. Patients with demodicosis tended to demonstrate recurrence (33.3% vs 10.3%; P = .02), especially in those with D. brevis (35.1% vs 13.5%; P = .03). There is a high prevalence of demodicosis, especially cases of caused by D. brevis, in adult and pediatric patients with chalazia, suggesting that ocular demodicosis is a risk factor for chalazia.American Journal of Ophthalmology 10/2013; 157(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2013.09.031 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose To detect risk factors that may be related to chalazia in children in southwest China. Design A prospective case control study. Methods The case group, 88 children with chalazia, was divided into two subgroups. One had 48 children aged 6 months to 6 years (defined as young children), and the other had 40 children aged 7-12 years (defined as older children). The control group consisted of 40 young children and 32 older children. Clinical findings for patients were recorded. Serum was tested for concentrations of Vitamin A, Vitamin D3, and immunoglobulin E (IgE). Results WHO definitions were used for Vitamin A deficiency (< 0.7umol/L) and marginal Vitamin A deficiency (0.7-1.05 umol/L). The average level of serum Vitamin A in the case group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < .001). Analyses failed to find significant differences in Vitamin D3 or IgE levels between the case and control groups. The average Vitamin A level in young children with multiple chalazia (0.65±0.12 umol/L) was low. Blepharitis was less prevalent than low serum Vitamin A levels in the young child subgroup (odds ratio [OR] = 8.5 and OR = 96.9, respectively) but higher than in older children (OR = 17.5 and OR = 9.0, respectively) Conclusions Low serum Vitamin A is associated with chalazion in young children in southwest China, especially young children with multiple chalazia.American Journal of Ophthalmology 05/2014; 157(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2014.02.020 · 4.02 Impact Factor