In Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Antiretrovirals Among HIV-Exposed But Uninfected Children in the United States

Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard School of Public Health , Boston, MA, USA.
AIDS patient care and STDs (Impact Factor: 3.5). 07/2011; 25(7):385-94. DOI: 10.1089/apc.2011.0068
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An increasing number of antiretroviral agents (ARVs) are approved for use, but their use during pregnancy in the United States has not been completely described. We used data from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study, a United States-based prospective cohort study of HIV-exposed but uninfected children, to assess temporal trends and maternal characteristics associated with the use of ARVs during pregnancy. The proportion of children exposed in utero to ARVs was calculated over time. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate associations of maternal characteristics with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy. We studied 1768 HIV-exposed but uninfected children born between 1995 and 2009 and enrolled in SMARTT. Prenatal HAART exposure increased from 19% in 1997 to 88% in 2009. Of children born in 2009, 99% had prenatal exposure to NRTIs (including zidovudine, 73%; lamivudine, 72%; tenofovir, 39%; and emtricitabine, 37%). Exposure to protease inhibitors increased from 15% in 1997 to 86% in 2009, while exposure to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) declined from 33% in 2003 to 11% in 2009. Higher maternal HIV RNA viral load (VL) concentration, lower maternal CD4 count, and earlier timing of the first maternal CD4 or VL measurement during pregnancy were associated with increased odds of HAART exposure. Prenatal HAART exposure has increased but is not universal. As ARV use during pregnancy continues to evolve, follow-up of children is needed to assess long-term effects of ARV exposures.

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Available from: Kenneth Rich, May 13, 2014
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    • "In 2011, Griner et al11 used data from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities study, a US-based prospective cohort study of HIV-exposed but uninfected children, to assess temporal trends in the use of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. PIs were the most common class of drugs observed after triple nucleoside RTIs. "
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    ABSTRACT: The dire conditions of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic and the immense benefits of antiretroviral prophylaxis in prevention of mother-to-child transmission far outweigh the potential for adverse effects and undeniably justify the rapid and widespread use of this therapy, despite incomplete safety data. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has now become standard care, and more than half the validated regimens include protease inhibitors. This paper reviews current knowledge of the safety of these drugs during pregnancy, in terms of maternal and fetal outcomes. Transfer of protease inhibitors across the placenta is known to be minimal, and current data about birth defects and fetal malignancies are reassuring. Maternal liver function and glucose metabolism should be monitored in women treated with protease inhibitor-based regimens, but concerns about the development of maternal resistance, should treatment be discontinued, have been shown to be groundless. Neonates should be screened for hematologic abnormalities, although these are rarely severe or permanent and are not usually related to the protease inhibitor component of the antiretroviral combination. Current findings concerning pre-eclampsia and growth restriction are discordant, and further research is needed to address the question of placental vascular complications. The increased risk of preterm birth attributed to protease inhibitors should be interpreted with caution considering the discrepant results and the multitude of confounding factors often overlooked. Although data are thus far reassuring, further research is needed to shed light on unresolved controversies about the safety of protease inhibitors during pregnancy.
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care 09/2013; 5:253-262. DOI:10.2147/HIV.S33058
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of elevated point-of-care (POC) capillary blood lactate concentrations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed, uninfected children (HEU) and to determine if POC lactate varies with in utero antiretroviral (ARV) exposure. The Surveillance Monitoring for Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities protocol of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study enrolled 1934 children between 2007 and 2009, 0 to 12 years of age, born to HIV-infected mothers. POC lactate was measured annually on capillary blood using the Lactate Pro device. Associations of POC lactate with in utero ARV exposure and other characteristics were evaluated using logistic regression models, adjusting for maternal characteristics and other confounders. Of 1641 children with POC measurements (median age, 3.0 years), 3.4% had POC lactate >3 mmol/L. Median POC lactate level decreased with age (1.9 mmol/L, 1.7 mmol/L, and 1.6 mmol/L for children 0-<6 months [99% ≤6 weeks of life], 6-<24 months, and ≥24 months of age, respectively; P < 0.001). Prevalence of elevated POC lactate did not differ by in utero ARV exposure drug class, but was significantly higher in children exposed in utero to emtricitabine or efavirenz, cocaine or opiates, and those of white race. POC lactate testing is a useful rapid laboratory screening assay for HEU children with ARV exposure. ARV use during pregnancy has resulted in a dramatic decrease in mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and the risk of elevated lactate in HEU children is low. However, as new ARVs and more complex regimens are used during pregnancy by HIV-infected women, continued monitoring for infant toxicities is essential.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 11/2011; 30(12):1069-74. DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e318234c886 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study's Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities Study is a prospective cohort study conducted at 22 US sites between 2007 and 2011 that was designed to evaluate the safety of in utero antiretroviral drug exposure in children not infected with human immunodeficiency virus who were born to mothers who were infected. This ongoing study uses a "trigger-based" design; that is, initial assessments are conducted on all children, and only those meeting certain thresholds or "triggers" undergo more intensive evaluations to determine whether they have had an adverse event (AE). The authors present the estimated rates of AEs for each domain of interest in the Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities Study. They also evaluated the efficiency of this trigger-based design for estimating AE rates and for testing associations between in utero exposures to antiretroviral drugs and AEs. The authors demonstrate that estimated AE rates from the trigger-based design are unbiased after correction for the sensitivity of the trigger for identifying AEs. Even without correcting for bias based on trigger sensitivity, the trigger approach is generally more efficient for estimating AE rates than is evaluating a random sample of the same size. Minor losses in efficiency when comparing AE rates between persons exposed and unexposed in utero to particular antiretroviral drugs or drug classes were observed under most scenarios.
    American journal of epidemiology 04/2012; 175(9):950-61. DOI:10.1093/aje/kwr401 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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