Heart failure enhanced pulmonary vein arrhythmogenesis and dysregulated sodium and calcium homeostasis with increased calcium sparks.
ABSTRACT Late sodium currents and intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+) (i)) dynamics play an important role in arrhythmogenesis of pulmonary vein (PV) and heart failure (HF). It is not clear whether HF enhances PV arrhythmogenesis through modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and increased late sodium currents. The aim of this study was to investigate the sodium and calcium homeostasis in PV cardiomyocytes with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole-cell patch clamp was used to investigate the action potentials and ionic currents in isolated rabbit single PV cardiomyocytes with and without rapid pacing induced HF. The Ca(2+) (i) dynamics were evaluated through fluorescence and confocal microscopy. As compared to control PV cardiomyocytes (n = 18), HF PV cardiomyocytes (n = 13) had a higher incidence of delayed afterdepolarization (45% vs 13%, P < 0.05) and faster spontaneous activity (3.0 ± 0.2 vs 2.1 ± 0.2 Hz, P < 0.05). HF PV cardiomyocytes had increased late Na(+) currents, Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger currents, and transient inward currents, but had decreased Na(+) currents or L-type calcium currents. HF PV cardiomyocytes with pacemaker activity had larger Ca(2+) (i) transients (R410/485, 0.18 ± 0.04 vs 0.11 ± 0.02, P < 0.05), and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. Moreover, HF PV cardiomyocytes with pacemaker activity (n = 18) had higher incidence (95% vs 70%, P < 0.05), frequency (7.8 ± 3.1 vs 2.3 ± 1.2 spark/mm/s, P < 0.05), amplitude (F/F(0) , 3.2 ± 0.8 vs 1.9 ± 0.5, P < 0.05), and longer decay time (65 ± 3 vs 48 ± 4 ms, P < 0.05) of Ca(2+) sparks than control PV cardiomyocytes with pacemaker activity (n = 18). CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulated sodium and calcium homeostasis, and enhanced calcium sparks promote arrhythmogenesis of PV cardiomyocytes in HF, which may play an important role in the development of atrial fibrillation.
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ABSTRACT: This review presents the roles of cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 late current (late INa) in generation of arrhythmic activity. The assumption of the authors is that proper Na(+) channel function is necessary to maintenance of the transmembrane electrochemical gradient of Na(+) and regulation of cardiac electrical activity. Myocyte Na(+) channels openings during the brief action potential upstroke contribute to peak INa and initiate excitation-contraction coupling. Openings of Na(+) channels outside the upstroke contribute to late INa, a depolarizing current that persists throughout the action potential plateau. The small, physiological late INa does not appear to be critical for normal electrical or contractile function in the heart. Late INa does, however, reduce the net repolarizing current, prolongs action potential duration, and increases cellular Na(+) loading. An increase of late INa, due to acquired conditions (e.g., heart failure) or inherited Na(+) channelopathies facilitates the formation of early and delayed afterpolarizations and triggered arrhythmias, spontaneous diastolic depolarization, and cellular Ca(2+) loading. These in turn increase the spatial and temporal dispersion of repolarization time and may lead to reentrant arrhythmias.Cardiovascular research 06/2013; · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether atrial substrate with complex fractionated electrograms (CFAEs) is related to arrhythmogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the electrophysiology in CFAE and high dominant frequency (DF) areas. METHODS AND RESULTS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) was induced by rapid atrial pacing in heart failure (HF) rabbits (4weeks after coronary artery ligation). Real-time substrate mapping, multielectrode array, and monophasic action potential recordings were used to study areas of CFAE and DF. Conventional microelectrode and western blot were used to record the action potentials (APs) and protein expression in isolated tissue preparations. CFAE site with high DF had the most depolarized resting membrane potential, highest incidence of early and delayed afterdepolarizations, and steepest maxima slope of 90% of AP duration (APD90) restitution curve (RC) compared to CFAE site with low DF or non-CFAE sites. CFAE site with high DF exhibited the slowest conduction velocity and shortest wavelength than the other areas. Upregulation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), apamin-sensitive small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel type 2 (SK2) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, and downregulation of the Kir2.1 were found at CFAE site with high DF compared to that observed in the 3 other areas. Inhibition of the NCX and SK channels prolonged the APD90, flattened the maximum slope of RC, and suppressed AF. CONCLUSIONS: CFAE site with high DF had an arrhythmogenic property differing significantly from the other areas of LA in an HF rabbit model, which may contribute to the genesis of AF.International journal of cardiology 02/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) has been reported up-regulating heat shock protein (HSP) expression, and protecting against atrial remodeling. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GGA on atrial electrophysiology and inducibility of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) model. HF rabbits were created 4weeks after coronary artery ligation. Monophasic action potential recordings and multielectrode array were used to record the electrophysiological characteristics of left atrium (LA) in normal, or HF rabbits with (HF-GGA) and without (HF-control) oral administration of GGA (200mg/kg, 24h before experiments). The mRNA and protein expressions of ionic channels were measured by Western blot and PCR. HF-GGA LA (n=10), similar to normal LA (n=10) had a shorter action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period than HF-control LA (n=10). HF-GGA LA had less triggered activity and APD alternans (20% vs. 100%, P=0.001), lower maxima slope of restitution curve of APD (0.94±0.04 vs.1.69±0.04, P<0.001), and less inducibility of AF (50% vs. 100%, P=0.033) than HF-control LA. HF-GGA LA had a shorter activation time and higher conduction velocity than HF-control LA. HF-GGA LA had a higher mRNA expression of Cav1.2, Nav1.5, Kir2.1, Kv1.4, Kv7.1, Kv11.1, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, and higher phosphorylation of phospholamban than HF-control LA. GGA decreases triggered activity, dispersion of APD and inducibility of AF in failing heart through induction of HSP, and modulation of ionic channels and calcium homeostasis.International journal of cardiology 07/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor