Inflammatory changes in the aneurysm wall: a review.
ABSTRACT Rupture of a saccular intracranial artery aneurysm (IA) causes subarachnoid hemorrhage, a significant cause of stroke and death. The current treatment options, endovascular coiling and clipping, are invasive and somewhat risky. Since only some IAs rupture, those IAs at risk for rupture should be identified. However, to improve the imaging of rupture-prone IAs and improve IA treatment, IA wall pathobiology requires more thorough knowledge. Chronic inflammation has become understood as an important phenomenon in IA wall pathobiology, featuring inflammatory cell infiltration as well as proliferative and fibrotic remodulatory responses. We review the literature on what is known about inflammation in the IA wall and also review the probable mechanisms of how inflammation would result in the degenerative changes that ultimately lead to IA wall rupture. We also discuss current options in imaging inflammation and how knowledge of inflammation in IA walls may improve IA treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the pathogenesis and clinical course of fusiform compared with saccular aneurysms. The case of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm accompanied by dissection at the M2 portion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is reported, along with pathological findings. A 41-year-old female presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage was revealed to have a ruptured fusiform aneurysm at the M2 portion of the right MCA on angiography. She was treated with superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The aneurysm consisted of a whitish fusiform dilatation with a thickened wall of the MCA and two red protrusions on it. Pathological examinations revealed disruption and fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina and intimal thickening in the fusiform lesion. There were two aneurysmal protrusions on the main fusiform dilatation. In one protruded lesion, a dissection of the intima was observed. We propose that a dissection and saccular aneurysm additionally developed on the wall of a preexisting segmental ectasia of the MCA in our case. In this report, we discuss the etiology of fusiform aneurysms of the MCA.Surgical Neurology International 01/2014; 5(Suppl 12):S465-S468. · 1.18 Impact Factor
Article: T lymphocytes and aortic aneurysms.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aortic aneurysms are common and life threatening problems with high rates of death. The initiation and progression of aneurysms are characterized by extensive extracellular matrix degradation and immune cells invasion within arterial wall. During the pathogenesis of all aneurysms, inflammation and immune cells play a significant role. Although T cells are abundant in aneurysm tissue, their functions in initiation and propagation of aneurysms remain unclear. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of T lymphocytes on this disease and focuses on potential mechanisms of specific T cell responses.Science China. Life sciences 08/2014; 57(8):795-801. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cerebral aneurysm (CA) rupture is a major cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage with high morbidity and mortality. Using an animal model, we examined the potential of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) transfusion on vascular degeneration after CA induction and underlying mechanisms. CA was induced in the right anterior cerebral artery-olfactory artery (ACA/OA) bifurcations in Sprague-Dawley rats with or without ECFCs transfusion. The degeneration of internal elastic lamina (IEL), media thickness and CA size were evaluated. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2 and 9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The macrophages infiltration and apoptosis of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were examined immunohistologically. Rats in CA+ECFCs transfusion group showed a notable reduction in IEL degeneration, media thinning and CA size compared with those in CA+saline group. ECFCs transfusion inhibited the MMP-driven wall destruction by downregulating MMP-2, MMP-9 expression and upregulating TIMP-1. ECFCs transfusion dramatically decreased VCAM-1 and NF-κB expression, increased eNOS expression and caused no change in MCP-1 expression, which was accompanied by reduced macrophages infiltration. Moreover, ECFCs transfusion reversed downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and upregulation of iNOS expression, and decreased SMCs apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that ECFCs transfusion confers protection against degeneration of aneurysmal wall by inhibiting inflammatory cascades and SMCs apoptosis.Brain Research 10/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor