Inflammatory changes in the aneurysm wall: a review.
ABSTRACT Rupture of a saccular intracranial artery aneurysm (IA) causes subarachnoid hemorrhage, a significant cause of stroke and death. The current treatment options, endovascular coiling and clipping, are invasive and somewhat risky. Since only some IAs rupture, those IAs at risk for rupture should be identified. However, to improve the imaging of rupture-prone IAs and improve IA treatment, IA wall pathobiology requires more thorough knowledge. Chronic inflammation has become understood as an important phenomenon in IA wall pathobiology, featuring inflammatory cell infiltration as well as proliferative and fibrotic remodulatory responses. We review the literature on what is known about inflammation in the IA wall and also review the probable mechanisms of how inflammation would result in the degenerative changes that ultimately lead to IA wall rupture. We also discuss current options in imaging inflammation and how knowledge of inflammation in IA walls may improve IA treatment.
- SourceAvailable from: Bernard R BendokWorld Neurosurgery 01/2014; · 1.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies demonstrated pigmented cells both in the murine heart, in pulmonary veins, and in brain arteries. Moreover, a role for melanocytes in the downregulation of inflammatory processes was suggested. As there is increasing evidence that inflammation is contributing significantly to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms, melanocyte-like cells may be relevant in preventing age-related impairment of vessels. As pigmentation of the heart reflects that of coat color, aspects of body pigmentation might be associated with the incidence of intracranial aneurysms. We performed a case-control study to evaluate associations between the pigmentation of hair and eyes and the formation of aneurysms. In addition to hair and eye color, constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation were assessed in a replication study as well as individual handedness which can be seen as a neurophysiological correlate of developmental pigmentation processes. Hair pigmentation was highly associated with intracranial aneurysms in both samples, whereas eye pigmentation was not. In the replication cohort, facultative but not constitutive skin pigmentation proved significant. The strongest association was observed for individual handedness. Results indicate a significant association of intracranial aneurysms with particular aspects of body pigmentation as well as handedness, and imply clinical usefulness for screening of aneurysms and possible interventions.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:301631. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways.Neurosurgical Review 12/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor