A functional microsatellite of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene associated with meningococcal disease
ABSTRACT Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an abundantly expressed proinflammatory cytokine playing a critical role in innate immunity and sepsis and other inflammatory diseases. We examined whether functional MIF gene polymorphisms (-794 CATT(5-8) microsatellite and -173 G/C SNP) were associated with the occurrence and outcome of meningococcal disease in children. The CATT(5) allele was associated with the probability of death predicted by the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (P=0.001), which increased in correlation with the CATT(5) copy number (P=0.04). The CATT(5) allele, but not the -173 G/C alleles, was also associated with the actual mortality from meningoccal sepsis [OR 2.72 (1.2-6.4), P=0.02]. A family-based association test (i.e., transmission disequilibrium test) performed in 240 trios with 1 afflicted offspring indicated that CATT(5) was a protective allele (P=0.02) for the occurrence of meningococcal disease. At baseline and after stimulation with Neisseria meningitidis in THP-1 monocytic cells or in a whole-blood assay, CATT(5) was found to be a low-expression MIF allele (P=0.005 and P=0.04 for transcriptional activity; P=0.09 and P=0.09 for MIF production). Taken together, these data suggest that polymorphisms of the MIF gene affecting MIF expression are associated with the occurrence, severity, and outcome of meningococcal disease in children.
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ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream immunoregulatory cytokine associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. There is evidence that MIF functions in a positive feedback loop with TNF-α that could perpetuate the inflammatory process in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this case-control study we investigated whether commonly occurring functional MIF polymorphisms are associated with SLE as well as with MIF and TNF- α serum levels in a Mexican-Mestizo population. Genotyping of the -794CATT5-8(rs5844572) and -173G>C(rs755622) MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP respectively in186 SLE patients and 200 healthy subjects. MIF and TNF- α serum levels were determined by ELISA. A significant increase of MIF and TNF- α levels was found in SLE patients. According to a genetic model, we found a significant association of genotypes carrying the -794CATT7 and -173∗C risk alleles with susceptibility to SLE and with a significant increase of TNF-α. In conclusion, MIF gene polymorphisms are associated with SLE susceptibility and with an increase of TNF-α serum levels in a Mexican-Mestizo population.Human immunology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2014.02.014 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We analyzed the relationship of -794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C MIF polymorphisms with mRNA and soluble MIF in young obese subjects. A total of 250 young subjects, 150 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects, were recruited in the study. Genotyping of -794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. MIF mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR and serum MIF levels were measured using an ELISA kit. For both MIF promoter polymorphisms, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between groups were observed. MIF mRNA expression was slightly higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects (1.38-fold), while soluble MIF levels did not show differences between groups. In addition, we found an increase in MIF mRNA expression in carriers of the 6,6 and C/C genotypes and the 6G haplotype of the -794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C MIF polymorphisms, although it was not significant. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between obesity and MIF gene promoter polymorphisms with MIF mRNA expression in young obese subjects.Disease markers 01/2015; 2015:461208. DOI:10.1155/2015/461208 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Adult-onset still's disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder in which abnormalities in inflammatory cytokines production appear to play a pathophysiological role. Our previous work has reported increased expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and revealed its correlation with disease severity and activity in AOSD. A -173 G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)(rs755622) and a -794 CATT5-8 repeat (rs5844572) in the MIF promoter have been reported. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between functional MIF promoter polymorphisms and MIF expression in AOSD. METHODS: 100 patients and 200 controls were recruited in the study. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was utilized to analyze the -173 G/C SNP (rs755622) and PCR-based size discrimination assay was applied to detect the -794 CATT5-8 repeat (rs5844572) in the MIF promoter. Plasma MIF levels were measured by ELISA. MIF mRNA levels were quantified by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Bisulfate genomic sequencing was employed to evaluate DNA methylation status within the MIF promoter. RESULTS: We identified that the frequencies of MIF -794 CATT5 (P=0.001) allele and the expression of MIF (P<0.001) were increased in patients compared to healthy controls. Plasma levels of MIF in patients with CC genotype were higher than those of patients with GC or GG genotypes(P=0.05). In patients with established AOSD, a higher frequency of -794 CATT7 containing MIF genotypes was observed in those with liver dysfunction (P=0.009). Haplotype analysis revealed a higher representation of the MIF haplotype defined by -173*C / -794 CATT5 (C5) in AOSD patients (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Functional promoter polymorphisms in the MIF gene influence plasma MIF levels in AOSD and may contribute to disease susceptibility or clinical presentation of AOSD.Arthritis research & therapy 05/2013; 15(3):R65. DOI:10.1186/ar4239 · 4.12 Impact Factor