Targeting Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) with small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of metabolic diseases.
ABSTRACT Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is one of two known DGAT enzymes that catalyze the final step in triglyceride synthesis. Findings from genetically modified mice as well as pharmacological studies suggest that inhibition of DGAT1 is a promising strategy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we characterize a tool DGAT1 inhibitor compound, T863. We found that T863 is a potent inhibitor for both human and mouse DGAT1 in vitro, which acts on the acyl-CoA binding site of DGAT1 and inhibits DGAT1-mediated triacylglycerol formation in cells. In an acute lipid challenge model, oral administration of T863 significantly delayed fat absorption and resulted in lipid accumulation in the distal small intestine of mice, mimicking the effects of genetic ablation of DGAT1. In diet-induced obese mice, oral administration of T863 for 2 weeks caused weight loss, reduction in serum and liver triglycerides, and improved insulin sensitivity. In addition to the expected triglyceride-lowering activity, T863 also lowered serum cholesterol. Hepatic IRS2 protein was dramatically up-regulated in mice treated with T863, possibly contributing to improved insulin sensitivity. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, T863 enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, suggesting a possible role for adipocytes to improve insulin sensitivity upon DGAT1 inhibition. These results reveal novel mechanistic insights into the insulin-sensitizing effects of DGAT1 inhibition in mouse models. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive evaluation of a small molecule inhibitor for DGAT1 and suggests that pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 holds promise in treating diverse metabolic disorders.
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ABSTRACT: The lipidome of the liver and the secreted circulating lipoproteins can now be interrogated conveniently by automated mass spectrometric methods. Multivariate analysis of the liver and serum lipid composition in various animal modes or in human patients has pointed to specific molecular species markers. The perturbations of lipid metabolism can be categorized on the basis of three basic pathological mechanisms: (1) an accelerated rate of de novo lipogenesis; (2) perturbation of the peroxisome pathway of ether-lipid and very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis; (3) a change in the rate of interconversion of essential omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This review provides examples to illustrate the practicalities of lipidomic studies in biomedicine.Metabolites. 12/2012; 2(1):1-18.
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ABSTRACT: Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) catalyzes the final committed step in triglyceride biosynthesis. DGAT1 null mice are known to be resistant to diet-induced obesity, and more insulin sensitive relative to the wild-type; however, the mice exhibit abnormalities in the skin. This work determined whether the intestine-targeted DGAT1 inhibitor could improve obesity and insulin resistance without skin aberrations in mice. We synthesized 2 DGAT1 inhibitors: Compound A, described in the patent application from the Japan Tobacco, and Compound B (A-922500), reported by Abbott Laboratories. Both compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activities against DGAT1 enzymes and effects on the skin in mice in vivo. Compound B was further investigated for effects on obesity and insulin resistance in diet-induced-obese (DIO) mice. The 2 compounds comparably inhibited the DGAT1 enzyme activity and the cellular triglyceride synthesis in vitro, while they showed different distribution patterns in mice in vivo. Compound A, which distributed systemically, caused skin aberrations, while Compound B, which preferentially distributed to the intestine, improved obesity and insulin resistance without skin aberrations in DIO mice. Our results suggest that the intestine is the key tissue in which DGAT1 plays a role in promoting obesity and insulin resistance.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112027. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic diseases such as atherogenic dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and type II diabetes are emerging as major global health problems. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is responsible for catalyzing the final reaction in the glycerol phosphate pathway of triglycerol synthesis. It has two isoforms, DGAT-1 and DGAT-2, which are widely expressed and present in white adipose tissue. DGAT-1 is most highly expressed in the small intestine, whereas DGAT-2 is primarily expressed in the liver. Therefore, the selective inhibition of DGAT-1 has become an attractive target with growing potential for the treatment of obesity and type II diabetes. Furthermore, DGAT-2 has been suggested as a new target for the treatment of DGAT-2-related liver diseases including hepatic steatosis, hepatic injury, and fibrosis. In view the discovery of drugs that target DGAT, herein we attempt to provide insight into the scope and further reasons for optimization of DGAT inhibitors.ChemMedChem 06/2014; 9(11). · 3.05 Impact Factor