Targeting Acyl-CoA:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) with Small Molecule Inhibitors for the Treatment of Metabolic Diseases
ABSTRACT Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is one of two known DGAT enzymes that catalyze the final step in triglyceride synthesis. Findings from genetically modified mice as well as pharmacological studies suggest that inhibition of DGAT1 is a promising strategy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we characterize a tool DGAT1 inhibitor compound, T863. We found that T863 is a potent inhibitor for both human and mouse DGAT1 in vitro, which acts on the acyl-CoA binding site of DGAT1 and inhibits DGAT1-mediated triacylglycerol formation in cells. In an acute lipid challenge model, oral administration of T863 significantly delayed fat absorption and resulted in lipid accumulation in the distal small intestine of mice, mimicking the effects of genetic ablation of DGAT1. In diet-induced obese mice, oral administration of T863 for 2 weeks caused weight loss, reduction in serum and liver triglycerides, and improved insulin sensitivity. In addition to the expected triglyceride-lowering activity, T863 also lowered serum cholesterol. Hepatic IRS2 protein was dramatically up-regulated in mice treated with T863, possibly contributing to improved insulin sensitivity. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, T863 enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, suggesting a possible role for adipocytes to improve insulin sensitivity upon DGAT1 inhibition. These results reveal novel mechanistic insights into the insulin-sensitizing effects of DGAT1 inhibition in mouse models. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive evaluation of a small molecule inhibitor for DGAT1 and suggests that pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 holds promise in treating diverse metabolic disorders.
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- "Metabolic hormones such as insulin play a key role in energy homeostasis by metabolizing glucose and triglycerides from the bloodstream into cells. In cases of insulin resistance, diglycerides are converted into triglycerides which accumulate into adipose tissue and are deposited as fat (Meegalla et al., 2002; Zhao et al., 2008; Cao et al., 2011). These studies are in accordance with our current findings of increased insulin, and a trend for higher TGs and DGs in patients under treatment with medium-and high-risk SGAs compared to low-risk and controls. "
ABSTRACT: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are commonly used to treat schizophrenia. However, SGAs cause metabolic disturbances that can manifest as metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a subset of patients. The causes for these metabolic disturbances remain unclear. We performed a comprehensive metabolomic profiling of 60 schizophrenia patients undergoing treatment with SGAs that puts them at high (clozapine, olanzapine), medium (quetiapine, risperidone), or low (ziprasidone, aripiprazole) risk for developing MetS, compared to a cohort of 20 healthy controls. Multiplex immunoassays were used to measure 13 metabolic hormones and adipokines in plasma. Mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of lipids and polar metabolites in 29 patients and 10 controls. We found that levels of insulin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were significantly higher (p < 0.005) in patients at medium and high risk for MetS, compared to controls. These molecules are known to be increased in individuals with high body fat content and obesity. On the other hand, adiponectin, a molecule responsible for control of food intake and body weight, was significantly decreased in patients at medium and high risk for MetS (p < 0.005). Further, levels of dyacylglycerides (DG), tryacylglycerides (TG) and cholestenone were increased, whereas α-Ketoglutarate and malate, important mediators of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, were significantly decreased in patients compared to controls. Our studies suggest that high- and medium-risk SGAs are associated with disruption of energy metabolism pathways. These findings may shed light on the molecular underpinnings of antipsychotic-induced MetS and aid in design of novel therapeutic approaches to reduce the side effects associated with these drugs.The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 02/2014; 17(08):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S1461145714000157 · 5.26 Impact Factor
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- "In our study, we showed a decreased deposit of macrophages and apoB in the atherosclerotic lesions in mice treated with active ribozymes. Dgat1 is currently a target of small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of diverse metabolic disorders.34,35 As noted in this study, it is possible that the decreased Dgat1 expression may be the result of a negative feedback from the increased intracellular TAG levels in the liver, resulting from the inhibition of VLDL assembly by ribozyme activity. "
ABSTRACT: Target substrate-specific hammerhead ribozyme cleaves the specific mRNA efficiently and results in the inhibition of gene expression. In humans, overproduction of apolipoprotein B (apoB) is positively associated with premature coronary artery diseases. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that long-term reduction of apoB gene expression using hammerhead ribozyme would result in inhibition of atherosclerosis development. We designed two hammerhead ribozymes targeted at the nucleotides of apoB mRNA GUC(2326) (designated RB1) and GUA(6679) (designated RB15), and we used self-complementary adeno-associated virus 8.2 (scAAV8.2) vector to deliver these active ribozymes of RB1, RB15, combination of RB1/RB15, and an inactive hammerhead ribozyme RB15 mutant to atherosclerosis-prone LDb mice (Ldlr(-/-)Apobec1(-/-)). LDb mice lack both low density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor (Ldlr(-/-)) and apoB mRNA editing enzyme (Apobec1(-/-)) genes and develop atherosclerosis spontaneously. After the RB1, RB15, or combination of RB1/RB15 ribozymes treatment, the LDb mice had significantly decreased plasma triglyceride and apoB levels, resulting in markedly decreased of atherosclerotic lesions, Furthermore, the active ribozymes treatment decreased the levels of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) mRNA and the levels of multiple diacylglycerol (DAG) molecular species. These results provide the first evidence that decreased apoB levels results to reduction of Dgat1 expression and triglyceride levels (TAG), which had a significant impact on the development of atherosclerosis.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e125; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.53; published online 1 October 2013.10/2013; 2(10):e125. DOI:10.1038/mtna.2013.53
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ABSTRACT: A novel series of DGAT-1 inhibitors was discovered from an oxadiazole amide high throughput screening (HTS) hit. Optimisation of potency and ligand lipophilicity efficiency (LLE) resulted in a carboxylic acid containing clinical candidate 53 (AZD3988), which demonstrated excellent DGAT-1 potency (0.6 nM), good pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical in vivo efficacy that could be rationalised through a PK/PD relationship.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 05/2012; 22(12):3873-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.04.117 · 2.33 Impact Factor