[Prostate carcinoma: vaccination as a new option for treatment].
Klinik für Urologie, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen, Deutschland.Der Urologe (Impact Factor: 0.44). 01/2012; 51(1):44-9.
Immune therapy and tumor cell vaccination is a challenging option in prostate cancer therapy, especially as side effects rarely occur. This review highlights recent developments in vaccination therapy of prostate cancer. The FDA approved antigen presenting cell vaccine Sipuleucel-T is described and new strategies of immune therapy like RNA and peptide vaccination are discussed in detail. Currently the effect of prostate cancer vaccination has still limitations, at least partially due to the immune suppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment and regulatory T cells, which suppress the immune effector function. To overcome these hurdles the concept of immune checkpoint modulation, which has the aim to break tolerance mechanisms, is discussed. Potential clinical therapies of checkpoint modulation are outlined.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This trial evaluated the safety, clinical activity, and immunogenicity of an allogeneic cellular immunotherapy in 55 chemotherapy-naïve patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). The immunotherapy, based on the GVAX platform, is a combination of two prostate carcinoma cell lines modified with the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene. HRPC patients with radiologic metastases (n = 34) or rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) only (n = 21) received a prime dose of 500 million cells and 12 boost doses of either 100 million cells (low dose) or 300 million cells (high dose) biweekly for 6 months. End points were changes in PSA, time to progression, and survival. Median survival was 26.2 months (95% confidence interval, 17, 36) in the radiologic group: 34.9 months (8, 57) after treatment with the high dose (n = 10) of immunotherapy and 24.0 months (11, 35) with the low dose (n = 24). The median time to bone scan progression in the radiologic group was 5.0 months (2.6, 11.6) with the high dose and 2.8 months (2.8, 5.7) with the low dose. In the rising-PSA group (n = 21) receiving the low dose, the median time to bone scan progression was 5.9 months (5.6, not reached), and median survival was 37.5 months (29, 56). No dose-limiting or autoimmune toxicities were seen; the most common adverse events were injection site reaction and fatigue. These results suggest that this GM-CSF-secreting, allogeneic cellular immunotherapy is well tolerated and may have clinical activity in patients with metastatic HRPC. Phase 3 trials to confirm these results are under way.Clinical Cancer Research 08/2007; 13(13):3883-91. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-2937 · 8.72 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cancer immunoediting hypothesis has gained significant footing over the past decade as a result of work performed using sarcomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA) in mice. Despite the progress made by several groups in establishing evidence for the three phases of immunoediting (elimination, equilibrium and escape), there continues to be active controversy on the nature of interaction between spontaneously formed tumour cells and the immune system during the early phases of tumourigenesis. At the root of this controversy is conflicting and unresolved evidence spanning back to the 1970s regarding the incidence and frequency of 3-MCA-induced sarcomas in immunocompetent mice as compared to immunodeficient mice. In this mini review we provide a critical analysis of both sides of this controversy.British Journal of Cancer 09/2009; 101(3):381-6. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605198 · 4.84 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protein antigens are presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes as small peptides (approximately 9-10 amino acids long) bound to class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex. The identification of tumor-associated antigens and specific peptide epitopes (i.e., antigenic determinants) may be useful in the development of anticancer vaccines. The generation of a cytotoxic T-cell response to one peptide epitope (amino acids 146-154) of human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been reported. Our aim was to identify novel PSA peptides capable of eliciting specific cytotoxic T-cell responses. Candidate peptides were identified on the basis of the following criteria: 1) they contained consensus amino acid motifs for binding to HLA-A2, which is the most common type of class I molecule; 2) they lacked strong homology with PSA-related kallikrein proteins; and 3) they were capable of stabilizing HLA-A2 class I molecules on the surface of human T2 (transport deletion mutant) cells, which are defective in antigen presentation. T-cell lines capable of killing (i.e., lysing) T2 target cells that had been pulsed with specific PSA peptides were generated from three different males (two disease-free individuals and one patient with prostate cancer) by incubating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the peptides and interleukin 2. Specific cell lysis was monitored by the release of radioactivity from target cells that had been labeled with [111In]oxyquinoline. Two novel PSA peptides capable of eliciting cytotoxic T-cell responses were identified; these peptides were designated PSA-1 (amino acids 41-150) and PSA-3 (amino acids 154-163). Four different cytotoxic T-cell lines were generated in response to these peptides-three against PSA-3 and one against PSA-1. Specific lysis of peptide-pulsed T2 cells by the T-cell lines was blocked by the addition of a monoclonal antibody directed against class I molecules. The T-cell lines were also capable of lysing PSA-positive, HLA-A2-positive LNCaP cells (human prostate carcinoma cells). The specificity of LNCaP cell lysis was shown by the following: 1) the inability of added human K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia) cells to inhibit it, 2) the ability of added anti-HLA-A2 antibodies to block it, and 3) the inability of the T-cell lines to induce substantial lysis of PSA-negative, HLA-A2-positive human cancer cells. Our studies form a rational basis for the use of PSA peptides or recombinant vectors encoding PSA in the development of anticancer vaccine immunotherapy protocols for patients with prostate cancer.JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 03/1997; 89(4):293-300. DOI:10.1093/jnci/89.4.293 · 12.58 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.