Accumulation of visceral fat in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
ABSTRACT In hemodialysis (HD) patients, obesity has been recognized as a serious risk factor for mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases. In addition, abnormalities of lipid profiles exist in these patients.
In patients undergoing maintenance HD, incidences of abnormality of lipid profiles and visceral obesity determined by computed tomography scans were compared. In addition, the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, or carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an index of atherosis, was examined.
The incidence of high VFA (27.0%) was significantly greater than that of high body mass index (BMI) (9.7%), high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (4.8%), and high triglyceride (12.7%). In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), waist circumference and VFA showed a significant positive relationship with baPWV. baPWV was significantly higher in patients with high VFA and DM than in patients with low VFA without DM, those with high VFA without DM, and those with low VFA and DM. Carotid IMT was significantly greater in patients with high VFA and DM than in those with low VFA without DM and those with low VFA and DM.
The incidence of high VFA was much greater than that of high BMI, high LDL-C, or high triglyceride. Visceral fat accumulation may be related to both arterial stiffness and atherosis in diabetic patients on maintenance HD.
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ABSTRACT: Arterial stiffness may predict coronary heart disease beyond classic risk factors. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the predictive value of arterial stiffness on coronary heart disease in patients with essential hypertension and without known clinical cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness was determined from carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity at baseline in 1045 hypertensives. The risk assessment of coronary heart disease was made by calculating the Framingham risk score according to the categories of gender, age, blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking. Mean age at entry was 51 years, and mean follow-up was 5.7 years. Coronary events (fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and angina pectoris) and all cardiovascular events served as outcome variables in Cox proportional-hazard regression models. Fifty-three coronary events and 97 total cardiovascular events occurred. In univariate analysis, the relative risk of follow-up coronary event or any cardiovascular event increased with increasing level of pulse wave velocity; for 1 SD, ie, 3.5 m/s, relatives risks were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.82; P<0.01) and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.70; P<0.001), respectively. Framingham score significantly predicted the occurrence of coronary and all cardiovascular events in this population (P<0.01 and P<0.0001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, pulse wave velocity remained significantly associated with the occurrence of coronary event after adjustment either of Framingham score (for 3.5 m/s: relative risk, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.79; P=0.039) or classic risk factors (for 3.5 m/s: relative risk, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.79; P=0.01). Parallel results were observed for all cardiovascular events. This study provides the first direct evidence in a longitudinal study that aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of primary coronary events in patients with essential hypertension.Hypertension 01/2002; 39(1):10-5. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Arterial distensibility measures, generally from pulse-wave velocity (PWV), are widely used with little knowledge of relationships to patient outcome. We tested whether aortic PWV predicts cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes and glucose-tolerance-tested (GTT) multiethnic population samples. Participants were randomly sampled from (1) a type 2 diabetes outpatient clinic and (2) primary care population registers, from which nondiabetic control subjects were given a GTT. Brachial blood pressures and Doppler-derived aortic PWV were measured. Mortality data over 10 years' follow-up were obtained. At any level of systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic PWV was greater in subjects with diabetes than in controls. Mortality risk doubled in subjects with diabetes (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.74) and in those with glucose intolerance (2.12, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.0) compared with controls. For all groups combined, age, sex, and SBP predicted mortality; the addition of PWV independently predicted all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14 for each 1 m/s increase) but displaced SBP. Glucose tolerance status and smoking were other independent contributors, with African-Caribbeans experiencing reduced mortality risk (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.69). Aortic PWV is a powerful independent predictor of mortality in both diabetes and GTT population samples. In displacing SBP as a prognostic factor, aortic PWV is probably further along the causal pathway for arterial disease and may represent a useful integrated index of vascular status and hence cardiovascular risk.Circulation 11/2002; 106(16):2085-90. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease is high in patients with terminal renal failure, and it is a major problem in those on dialysis. A low ankle-brachial index (ABI) suggests the presence of arterial stenotic lesions between the aorta and the ankle joint, while a low toe-brachial index (TBI) suggests stenotic lesions between the aorta and the toes. Therefore, a normal ABI (> or =0.9) and a low TBI (<0.6) may indicate the presence of stenotic lesions located only on the peripheral side of the ankle joint. In the present study, risk factors of normal ABI/low TBI were investigated. In 115 patients on maintenance dialysis, the ABI and TBI were simultaneously measured, and the background factors and laboratory data of patients with normal ABI/low TBI (L group) and those with normal ABI/normal TBI (> or =0.6) (N group) were compared. Low ankle-brachial and toe-brachial indices were detected in 13% and 22% of the patients, respectively. Comparison of the background factors and laboratory data between the N and L groups showed that the ratio of diabetes mellitus, interdialytic body weight gain, and Hb(A1c) values were significantly higher in the L group than in the N group. It was clarified that diabetes and excess body weight gain are involved as risk factors in dialysis patients with normal ABI/low TBI.Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 05/2009; 13(2):103-7. · 1.53 Impact Factor