Relationships between cardiovascular disease risk factors and depressive symptoms as predictors of cardiovascular disease events in women.

Psychology Service, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA.
Journal of Women's Health (Impact Factor: 1.9). 02/2012; 21(2):133-9. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.2787
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) account for much of the variability in CVD outcomes and are also related to psychosocial variables. There is evidence that depression can undermine the treatment and advance the progression of CVD risk factors, suggesting that CVD risk factor relationships with CVD events may differ among those with depression.
This study tracked CVD events and mortality over a median of 5.9 years among a prospective cohort of 620 women (mean age 59.6 years [11.6]) completing a diagnostic protocol including coronary angiography and CVD risk factor assessment. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The study outcome was combined cardiovascular mortality and events.
Over the follow-up interval, 16.1% of the sample experienced one or more of the cardiovascular outcomes. In separate Cox regression models adjusting for age, education history, ethnicity, and coronary angiogram scores, we observed statistically significant CVD risk factor × BDI score interactions for diabetes, smoking, and waist-hip ratio factors. Simple effect analyses indicated that diabetes and smoking status were more strongly associated with cardiovascular outcomes among participants with lower BDI scores, whereas waist-hip ratio values predicted outcomes only among those with higher BDI scores.
These results suggest that the relationship between modifiable CVD risk factors and CVD outcomes may vary with depression status in clinical samples of women. This evidence augments prior research by demonstrating that depression may influence CVD risk jointly with or independent of CVD risk factors. It also provides further support for the inclusion of depression assessment in cardiovascular clinic settings.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA and is associated with several modifiable (hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, tobacco use, physical inactivity, obesity and unhealthy diet) and nonmodifiable (age, gender and family history) risk factors. The role of psychosocial risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease has a growing body of literature, and differences in men and women have been identified. The Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation provides insight into psychosocial risk factors in a cohort of women presenting with chest pain who had a comprehensive battery of psychosocial assessments and long-term follow-up. This review focuses on symptom presentation for chest pain and its relationship to cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, quality of life, healthcare costs and psychosocial predictor variables, including anxiety, depression, hostility and social networks. In the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation, persistent chest pain was associated with an increased rate of adverse events and relatively high rates of depression and anxiety, with reduced functional capacity and impaired quality of life, over a median of 6 years of follow-up. More research is needed to better understand the relationships between symptoms and negative emotions and to determine whether psychological (pharmacologic and/or cognitive) interventions might impact both psychological and cardiovascular outcomes.
    Women s Health 09/2013; 9(5):479-90.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in Middle Eastern countries. Depression is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates among cardiovascular (CV) patients. Early detection of and intervention for depression among CV patients can reduce morbidity and mortality and save health care costs. Public information on mental health care needs of Arab CV patients living in Middle East regions is scattered and limited. This literature review surveyed and summarized research studies to learn what is known about the relationship between depression and CVD in Middle Eastern populations. The information will raise awareness among health care professionals and policy makers regarding the clinical significance of depression in Arab CV patients. It might contribute to development of culturally appropriate and effective mental health care services. Multiple databases were searched and 60 articles were assessed, including studies that investigated depression in Arab CV patient populations, physiological mechanisms of depression-CVD comorbidity, and intervention strategies that affect CV risk in depressed Arab patients. We discuss the extent to which this issue has been explored in Arab populations living in Middle East regions and Arab populations living abroad. We recommend that more comprehensive and in-depth research studies be conducted with Arab cardiac patients to enable implementation of culturally appropriate and effective mental health care interventions.
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 06/2014; · 1.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diseases once associated with older adulthood, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Interventions designed to assist adults in modifying dietary and physical activity habits have been shown to help prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adults. Given the unfortunate rise in both of these diseases in pediatric populations, it is increasingly important to begin prevention efforts in childhood or prenatally. There is strong empirical support for utilizing lifestyle interventions to prevent these diseases in adults; it is not clear whether the same holds true for pediatric populations. The present review examines lifestyle management efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in children across socioecological levels. Recommendations are made for expanding the traditional focus of lifestyle interventions from dietary and physical activity behaviors to target additional risks for these diseases such as smoking and depression in youth.
    Current Diabetes Reports 12/2014; 14(12):557. · 3.38 Impact Factor


Available from
May 28, 2014