This study examined the association of hematocrit (Hct) levels measured upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and red blood cell transfusions to long-term (1-year or 180-day) mortality for both surgical and medical patients.
Administrative and laboratory data were collected retrospectively on 2393 consecutive medical and surgical male patients admitted to the ICU between 2003 and 2009. We stratified patients based on their median Hct level during the first 24 hours of their ICU stay (Hct < 25.0%, 25% ≤ Hct < 30%, 30% ≤ Hct < 39%, and 39.0% and higher). An extended Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify the time period after ICU admission (0 to <180, 180 to 365 days) when low Hct (<25.0) was most strongly associated with mortality. The unadjusted and adjusted relationship between admission Hct level, receipt of a transfusion, and 180-day mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling.
Patients with an Hct level of less than 25% who were not transfused had the worst mortality risk overall (hazard ratio [HR], 6.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.05-12.85; p < 0.001) during the 6 months after ICU admission than patients with a Hct level of 39.0% or more who were not transfused. Within the subgroup of patients with a Hct level of less than 25% only, receipt of a transfusion was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of mortality (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.85; p = 0.017).
Anemia of a Hct level of less than 25% upon admission to the ICU, in the absence of a transfusion, is associated with long-term mortality. Our study suggests that there may be Hct levels below which the transfusion risk-to-benefit imbalance reverses.
"232 S. C. Mudumbai et al. interaction terms. Data were collected from the VA Analytics Data Warehouse ('VA Analytics') and VISTA, the VA centralised electronic medical record (Goldstein et al., 2003; Mudumbai et al., 2011). VA Analytics aggregates clinical and administrative data for patients from ICU admission to discharge. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To compare the 1-year survival for different age strata of intensive care unit (ICU) patients after receipt of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. Background
Despite guidelines documenting risks of PRBC transfusion and data showing that increasing age is associated with ICU mortality, little data exist on whether age alters the transfusion-related risk of decreased survival. Methods
We retrospectively examined data on 2393 consecutive maleICU patients admitted to a tertiary-care hospital from 2003 to 2009 in age strata: 21-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80 and >80years. We calculated Cox regression models to determine the modifying effect of age on the impact of PRBC transfusion on 1-year survival by using interaction terms between receipt of transfusion and age strata, controlling for type of admission and Charlson co-morbidity indices. We also examined the distribution of admission haematocrit and whether transfusion rates differed by age strata. ResultsAll age strata experienced statistically similar risks of decreased 1-year survival after receipt of PRBC transfusions. However, patients age >80 were more likely than younger cohorts to have haematocrits of 25-30% at admission and were transfused at approximately twice the rate of each of the younger age strata. DiscussionWe found no significant interaction between receipt of red cell transfusion and age, as variables, and survival at 1year as an outcome.
Transfusion Medicine 03/2013; 23(4). DOI:10.1111/tme.12010 · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plasma level of erythropoietin (Epo) in anemic patients suffering from inflammation is often low in relation to the blood hemoglobin concentration. Various proinflammatory cytokines have been tested for their action on the synthesis of Epo. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) suppress Epo gene expression in isolated perfused rat kidneys and in human hepatoma cell cultures. IL-6 inhibits in the kidney, and conflicting results have been reported for its effect on Epo synthesis in hepatic cells. Several other cytokines tested were without effect. Thus, mainly IL-1 and TNF-alpha seem to be responsible for the defect in Epo production in severe systemic and renal inflammatory diseases.
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 09/1998; 18(8):555-9. DOI:10.1089/jir.1998.18.555 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anemia is common in critically ill patients, but treatment with red blood cell transfusions can have unwanted effects. Limiting the occurrence and severity of anemia by using erythropoietic agents (iron and/or recombinant erythropoietin), therefore, remains an attractive option during the intensive care unit stay but also after hospital discharge. Moreover, these agents may have additional beneficial properties. In this article the authors review the rationale for the administration of iron and/or erythropoietin in critically ill patients.
Critical care clinics 07/2012; 28(3):345-62, v. DOI:10.1016/j.ccc.2012.04.003 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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